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Water and Sanitation Behavior among the Poor Migrants in Urban Area: An Insiders view of Akhalia Area in Sylhet


Deptautment of Anthropology
Shahjalal University of Science and technology.
Sylhet, Bangladesh.

Water and Sanitation Behavior among Poor Migrants in Urban Area: An Insider View of Akhalia Area in Sylhet.

Supervised By
 Mr. AKM Mazharul Islam
Dept. of Anthropology


Prepared By
Haribandu Sarma
Roll No-98220227
Dept. of Anthropology

Submited to
The Department of Anthropology
Shajalal University of Science and Technology
Sylhet, Bangladesh.

In partial fulfillment of the requirements if Master of Social Science in Anthropology.


The research “Water and sanitation behavior among poor migrated people in urban area” is done by very difficulties. It is not successfully completed without helping some other special persons. Many persons contributed and give me support, to prepare this research. At first I greatly acknowledge my supervisor and our respectable teacher Mr.A.K.M Majharul Islam. From first to last of this research, he helps me with more closely. To prepare this research, some other honorable teachers also help me by providing various support of this research. I remember and acknowledge my respectable teacher Dr AbdulAwwal Biswas, head dept of anthropology, SUST, he helps me to giving some books, articles and providing other research related support. Mr.Hasan Al Shafie, one of the great helpful teachers of our department, he also help me by providing valuable advised and show me the proper path of this research. I also acknowledge and remember his advised at that time.

I owe my thanks to ICDDRB’s research specialist, famous medical anthropologist Dr. KAM AZIZ, who also gives me the valuable, advised at the primary stage of this research. I also acknowledge with him. Many friends and beloved brothers of my residence also help me in various purposes of this research. I also remember their valuable support. Finally, I greatly recognize to the migrated people of Akhalia area, without their helping, I cannot complete this research. They had given their valuable moment in the time of data collection. I am very much grateful with them and I further acknowledge all other persons, those help me in some other occasions of this research.

Haribondhu   Sarma
Dept of anthropology
SUST. Sylhet
Dated: March 17, 2002

Functional Definition:

Poor: In this particular studies poor has been define as those people have low income level and those belong in socio-culturally oppress position in their own society.

Sanitation: Sanitation means total way of life; it is the quality of living that has express in clean homes, clean neighborhood and clean community.  

Water and Sanitation Behavior: In this study it means how people interact with water, latrine and other sanitary related components. 

Migration: In this particular study, migration means the city-ward mobilization of people from village area.    



Functional Definition

Chapter-One: Introductory Issues

1.1    Poor Migration and the Situation of Health
1.2    Conceptualization of the Research
1.3    Objective
1.4    Rationality of the Research
1.5    Literature Review
1.6    Methodology

Chapter-Two: About the Study Area

2.1Geographical Location
    a. Map of Bangladesh
    b. Map of Sylhet Pourashaba
2.2 Sort History of this Area
2.3 General Criteria of Migrated People
2.3.1 Occupation of Migrated people
2.3.2 Population and Household Pattern
2.3.3 Education
2.3.4 Income and Expenditure of Migrated people
2.3.5 Working Condition
2.3.6 Marital Status
2.3.7 Family Pattern
2.3.8 Formal and informal Facilities Provided

Chapter-Three Socio-Economic Background of Poor Migrated People

3.1 Previous Socio-Cultural Pattern
3.1.1 Previous Family Pattern
3.1.2 Religious Background and the Position of Migrated people
3.1.3 Social Position of Migrated people
3.1.4 Previous Food Habit
3.2 Previous Economical Background

Chapter Four –Pattern of Migration

4.1 Previous Home place of Migrant
4.2 Causes of Migration
4.2.1 Push Factors
4.2.2 Pull factors
4.3 Gender Factors of Migration
4.4 The Process of Migration
4.5 Relation with Home place

Chapter Five: Sanitation Behavior in Countryside

5.1 Water Related Behavior
5.1.1 Sources of Water
5.1.2 Water use in Different Purposes
5.2 Patter of latrine
5.2.1 Type of Latrine
5.2.2 Using pattern of Latrine
5.2.3 Latrine Related Behavior in the Village Area
5.3 Previous Food Taking Behavior and personal hygiene.
5.4 Drainage system and solid waste disposal.
5.5 Sanitation related diseases.

Chapter –six: water use in city area

6.1 major water sources in Akhalia area
6.2 water using pattern of poor migrated people
6.2 1 water for human consumption
6.2.2 water for washing
6.2.3 water use for cooling
6.2.4 water for ritual management
6.3 water related social relation

Chapter-seven: sanitation behavior of poor migrated people

7.1 latrine use of migrated people
7.1 1 different type of latrine
7.1 2 using pattern of latrine
7.1 3 latrine related behavior
7.2 Soap use and awareness about health
7.3 Hand use in different purposes
7.4 Drainage system
7.5 Solid waste disposal
7.6 Food taking behavior
7.7 Domestic and personal hygiene

Chapter-eight: migration adaptation and alter math: the epidemiological                             outcome of Diarrhea

8.1Poor migrants in urban ecology
8.2 Urban adaptation and health problem
8.3Unsuccessfull adaptation and Diarrhea

Chapter- nine: conclusion



Chapter- One

1.1    Introduction

The migrant arrival in the city rarely isolated him from the constraints and support of close personal relation. Generally, those who leave their home to find work in the cities follow friends and relatives from their hometowns and villages, relying upon them for aid in finding employment and a place to leave.
Despite the modification of kinship and other traditional supportive mechanism to fit urban conditions, many migrants experience great difficulties in adapting. The source of pressure is often the migrants the migrants personality. Sometimes migrants are too to adjust to the altered environments, while in other causes some maladaptive personality characteristics that pressed them to emigrate from their home also render them unsuccessful in the city. Finally, failure of migrants to adapt to city life may be of consequence of scarcity of opportunity for even the lowest employment (Basham: 1978).
Now in Bangladesh, the growth of urbanization mostly depends on migration. People come from rural areas as a migrant. For this they have to face different adjustments in the newly socio-cultural situation of the urban areas. Although it is a country of kin-based society and the problem of urbanization are many poor migrants have difficulty to adjust in urban areas.
Bangladesh is known as a country of over population. In urban areas most people live in very unhealthy situation. People those who migrate from rural areas firstly face difficulty to adjust to the different competition in the urban settlement. Most of the poor migrants loss their land or other living facilities due to different reasons. For this, most of the poor migrants live in urban area in poor living facilities.

1.2    Poor Migration and the Situation of Health

A change in the urban population of a country can take place in two possible ways, finally by migration and secondly by natural increase of population itself. In Bangladesh, cities are populated primarily by migrants who have been pushed to leave their rural to small town homes mainly due to economic hardship, rather than pulled by the attraction of urban

Opportunities. The rural people of Bangladesh have lost their land and other facilities in the rural areas by some natural or social disasters. This and other man made factors turn to poor to the poorest. They have no work in the village for earning and managing their family needs. Then they have to leave their village and migrated to urban areas.
 In this urban area, this poor migrated people have to face more difficulties to adjustment with urban situation. Urban societies are more individualistic; people are too busy to maintain their life and kinship bondness are not so strong as rural areas. For this the poor people of urban communities to cope with realization that the will never be able to achieve the life styles deemed successful by the dominant group. In time, however, what begin as spontaneous attempts to cope become entrenched and from the core of poverty. This larger society is characterized by a “disengagement” in which its generally do not participate in such institution as labor union, hospital, departmental stores and education and cultural facilities. Contact with larger social institutions when it occurs is largely “negative”, through prisons or welfare institutions.
On the other hand, urban poor have face numerous health problems often worse than those of their rural situations. Many of this is combination of the problem of “underdevelopment” (such as malnutrition and infection diseases) and those of “development” (pollution, noise, traffic accident). Harpham (Harpham: 1988) describe how these problems have three main sources:
Direct problem of poverty: Such as unemployment, low income, limited education and literacy, inadequate diet, lack of breast feeding, prostitution.
Environmental problem: Due to poor housing, overcrowding, inadequate water supplies and sanitation lack of waste disposal, air pollution, traffic accident, the sitting hazardous industries nearby, and lack of land to grow food on.
Psychological problem: Such as stress insecurity, marital breakdown, depression, alcoholism, smoking, domestic violence and drug addiction.
The health problems are confined to the slum communities themselves. In Bangladesh, for example, there are so many people without proper sanitation that a ‘facial snow’ often falls on the city, as the wind sweeps up dried human waste. This overcrowded urban environments can also become breeding grounds for several infection diseases – some spread by humans, others by victors such as mosquitoes.                 

1.3    Objective

Broad Objective
To investigate the health outcome of sanitation related practices among the urban poor migrants.

 Specific Objective

To know the process of migration and the way of adaptation of the poor migrated people in an urban ecological setting.
To find out the different water related behavior of poor migrated people.
To know the way of sanitation practices among poor migrants.
To find out the common health problems that is directly or indirectly related to the use of water and sanitation.

1.4    Contextualization of the Research

An important theoretical perspective in the study of role of migration in urbanization process is the human ecological approach. Anthropologists have attempted to examine the relationship of population movement to socio-environmental process in terms of the concept “ecological complex” which broadly including population, social organization and technology (POET system). The outstanding representatives of this approach are Hawley (1971), Duncun (1969), Schnore (1969, Mcgee (1967) and Lampard (1965). The human ecological approach is a theory of change of a community as a eco-social system in terms of the interaction of this four component elements. This perspective has been the logical development from the ecological doctrine of the Chicago School led by Burgess and Park (1928).
The process of urbanization is seen more or less in the redistribution of population is space and migration can be interpreted as a function of changes in the ecological complex. To conceive of migration as the function of this system is equivalent of to analizing it as the product of the social dynamics of a set of historical environmental conditions. For cities to increase in number an size, change occur not only in population and space, but in other variables as in environmental and technological spheres (A.F.H. Choudhury: 1990).
In the study, ‘The use of sanitation among poor migrated people in urban area’ here consider city may be thought of as ecosystem which require energy to maintain their structure and which are segmented in natural areas. Poor people have migrated in a ecological complex area by some push factors and adapt that place by changing living practices.
In the ecological model health is regarded as the result of successful adaptation to environmental challenge and disease the outcome of the failure to adapt. Medicine both curative and preventive, is seen here as a cultural device to restore optimal adaptation.    

1.6 Rationality of the Research

The research ‘water and sanitation behavior among the poor migrated people in urban area’ is a newly research on urban medical anthropology. In Bangladesh very few research have done from this context. But it is very much important to think about the poor people, who are migrated from village to urban areas. In urban area most of the migrated people are poor. They leave their village by some crucial causes. Most of the time they loss the living entity   in the village area, for this, when those people are migrated to the urban areas, they have to face some problems to adjust this newly settings in an urban area. On the context of this situation, it is very difficult to full fill their necessary physical needs. So, it is very rationality of this research to concentrate above this problems and it can be very valuable document about this context. On the other hand, the research can be valuable from the following perspective.  

From this research, the future researcher of this field (urban anthropology) can be found the socio-cultural condition of the poor migrated people in urban area. And they will also understand about the correlation of health situation and specific urban environmental setting of poor people.

    This research can be very rational; if when our government will keep any step to increasing health condition of poor people in urban areas then it can be suggest something from this context.
On the other hand, any well-fare institution or any other NGO can be used this research paper to in-depth realization of condition of poor migrated people in urban area.

In above this case this research can be varying rational in this field. This research is probably the first of this field in term of the methodological uniqueness it’s followed.

1.5    Research Methodology

The research is done considering the method of network analysis. People live in a city as an ecological setting and their relationship among other persons and institutions are in the system of network. In this research  ‘participant observation’ method is also be followed. However to conduct this research some specific anthropological methods such as case study method, focus group discussion, checklist, emic etic and synchronic and diachronic approach will be used for data collection and data analysis. This could be discussing as below:

Area Selection: the study will be carried out in a particular region of Sylhet city. The main area of the research in a ward, which is identify as a ward no-7 of Sylhet Pourashava. In this ward single region will be selected, the name of that area is Akhalia. Many poor migrated people have been setting in this area.

Sample Selection: The sample of respondent will selected by follow the method of random sampling with the context of respondent’s occupation. Some of the will collected from the data will collect from the secondary sources, such as books, documents, journals and written documents, which related to the problem of that research and provide better understanding about migration, health and sanitation problem in Bangladesh.

Data Collection Techniques: The main technique of data collection of this research will network technique. In this particular technique data will collect to use some methods, such as gossiping focus group discussion, here also used the primary method of data collection will be conducted by formal or informal perspectives. For the collection of primary data will use two checklists for interview with male and female respondents.

Tools for the Management of Field Notes: conducting the fieldwork the researcher will use various research tools, such as:
Field Diary:  A diary will kept during the data collection period on which collection of data, personal experiences, field situation and the degree of relationship and observable phenomena will elaborate written.
Camera and Recorder: A camera and a recorder will always keep during the fieldwork period. Camera will be used for documented in vague materials, which was imposable to clarify in written description. Again to keep to continuity of spontaneous description, the researcher will maintain a recorder faiching the problem of listening and understanding.
Field Note: The researcher will regularly maintain field notes in a description manner from the collected information.

Data Presentation and Analysis: It will be a qualitative research from the anthropological perspective. The use of presenting data in a qualitative form was followed, although for the better understanding of urban social criteria some tabular and statistical documents will also used. Data will focus on this research from synchronic and diachronic approaches and analyzed from both perspectives. In this study the researcher will strictly tried to emphasize on emic and etic approaches. Primary data will collect from emic point of view and analyze and to prove their knowledge in a scientific background etic will apply.       

1.6    Literature Review

To prepare this research, some related books and article were studied; also these books and articles were completed by some prominent social scientist, which are following the aspects of urban anthropology, some papers were written from the aspect of medical anthropology.  Specifically, some reports written from migration and health aspect, which are more concentrate on the Bangladesh perspective. From this research viewpoint, here including of those books and articles summarization.

Richard   Basham is a prominent social scientist in the field of urban anthropology. Urban anthropology: The cross-cultural studies of complex society (1978) are an important book in urban studies. Including introduction and within other eight chapters he covered this book by some special urban perspectives. This book is a product of more than decade of interest and research in urban anthropology. He was initially attracted to the study of anthropology by its cross –cultural perspective of human culture. This book is   discuss some important things of urban phenomenon such as a significant body of information on rural urban migration, the function of kinship in the city, the adaptation and adjustment of human in densely populated environment and the effect of urban cultural pluralism of social stratification.             

 In the context of review of this book, here selects some special chapter in that research perspective. Chapter-1, the study of urban and complex societies, in this chapter Basham generally discuss about some urban studies and how urban anthropology have been developed as a sub-field of socio-cultural anthropology. In the social science, firstly urban studies were carrying by sociology hen in the mid 20th century anthropologists had more concentrate about this studies. Urban research had developed by some approaches, Such as the Chicago school of urban ecology, community study approach and interactionism. In the ecological approach here, consider city as a ecosystem which required energy to maintain its structure. It is very much more important research approach in urban studies. Community study approach and interactions are also more                                                                         important in urban anthropological research.  

 On the context of these approaches urban anthropology have developed its methodological framework to changing its traditional pattern of research of anthropology. Here also concentrate in the perspective of statistical data collection and the analysis of quantities perspectives

Chapter-3 rural-urban migration and growth of the cities, here Basham elaborate analysis of migration and the growth of the cities, people migrated in the city by traditional fashion and by some causes, which are called the primary urbanization. In the context of worldwide migration of rural to urban, here focus two-type migration the ‘push’ factor and the ‘poll’ factor. People are migrated   on the causes of ‘push’ factors, its occure to rural pressure to leave his\her village residence, and ‘pull’ factors people leave their village by attraction city’s facilities. In the situation of rural-urban migration, there are four type migration beyond the push and poll factors, such as sedenfary, circulatory,   oscillatory, and linear. Population movement can also depend on some cultural, economical and personal motivation. Economic motivations rank first among reasons ordinary advance for urban   or any form of migration.                                                     

‘Social formation of Dhaka city’ is a most important study in urban perspective. This book is written by Kamal Siddique, Sayeda Rowshanqadir, Sitara Alamgir and Sayeedul Huq. It is sociological work focusing on the characteristics and aspirations of, and interactions among various important class and group of people living in present day Dhaka city.
The book had completed by eight chapters, from those chapter here consider three chapter which are most relevant for this particular research. Chapter five ‘the formal   sector poor of Dhaka city’, chapter six ‘the informal sector poor of Dhaka city’, and chapter seven ‘beggars, prostitutes, and criminals of Dhaka city’      
In the chapter five, formal sector of poor people of in Dhaka city, here Siddique and  other defined the formal sector poor as that section of the  manual working class population who receive regular  weekly/monthly salaries/wages are not   self employed by a formal organization. The formal sector poor quite expectedly fall for behind respondent of the GHS in the term of income, properly education, employment              
Opportunities and in the degree of access to basic human needs such as food, shelter, clothing, education and health care. On the contrary, they were generally the victim of gender discrimination, sexual abuse and over work without proper compensation.

Chapter six informal sector of poor, the writers are defined that the poor who are either self-employed or even it wage     employed, on an irregular basis and without any legal binding on the employers.  To study those group of people, they are divided  five groups of  people under informal sector poor of Dhaka city, such as the floating people of Dhaka  city; the female headed households   among floating people of Dhaka city; the tokaies of Dhaka city; the domestic  servants of Dhaka city; the rickshaw puller  of Dhaka city. They    are studied by the location of their residence, which are conducted of the conditions of squatter population.

In the chapter six, beggars, prostitutes  and criminals of Dhaka city.  In this chapter the writers are discuss  about  beggars, prostitutes, and criminal as Marxist social class analysis lumpan proletariat The discuss  that the lumpan proletarian constitutes an  productively  employed social layer outside the working class In the Dhaka city these lumpan proletariat are come from the village of other districts of the country.
From the study of this book , here comment that social formation of Dhaka city is a very important urban study, it is completed from the direct research, to collect primary data and here also concentrate  on the  social aspect of  the respondents. But it is failed to understand the qualitative information. For  this  the works of Siddique  and other does not say as the similar of anthropological work.           

The most important book of this study is Medical anthropology in ecological perspective[1984] written by an Mcelroy and  Patriciak Townsend. The major theme of the book is that the distribution of diseases overtime and space in directly related  to a population role  in  its ecosystem .A community health closely reflects the nature of its adaptation to the environment.

From this book, here select some chapter from the context of this research. In the first chapter from they trace the linkages in this system approach constructing a general framework for thinking about how health, community and environment are related. In the chapter-3, they discuss the process of adjustment and change that enable a population of migration itself in given environment. Because environment and ecological relationship change over time, adaptation is a continual process. In this chapter, they says that the medical systems are one aspect of cultural adaptation to health problems, cultural customs, beliefs, and taboos also have an indirect effect on health.

‘Stress and diseases’ chapter-7, the writers discuss in this chapter that the stress and adoption are closely related concept in medical anthropology, for stressful conditions in the environment are often a stimulus for adaptive responses. Stress may arise when ecosystems are disrupted by natural disasters such as famines and earthquakes. Stress also in present in ecosystems that steadily exert pressures on human adaptive capacities, for example, high attitude regions or extremely hot climates. Stress comes from   deprivation as well; the health profile of arctic hysteria examines the role of calcium and vitamin D deficiency.

Anita and et-al written a book from the medical anthropological prospective. The name of their book is ‘Applied health research manual: Anthropology of health and health care’. It is a applied oriented book from the perspective of medical anthropology. Towards anthropology, they prepared this book by 24
Module. First twelve modules, and module 18A  and 23, have been develop for the applied health oriented. At the beginning of each module, a selection of relevant literature is listed. Students are expected to read the literature before attending a session. Because these modules also prepared for the international course in anthropology of health and health care, which is first organized in Bankok.

Modules 13 to 29, except modules 18 and 13, have been adapted from designing and conducting health systems research projects. They bear responsibility for the adaptation, which has entailed a change in focus towards anthropology and qualitative research in several modules.

 Anita and other’s book are very important in study of applied health research, and it is not very important in the academic studies. However, in this research this book is more support to understand some concept and analytical technique.

‘Peasant perceptions: Sanitation’ is a article for ‘rural study series’ volume-1 publish in 1992, writer is unknown. It is more important article for water related behavior, in this article writer show the peasant water sources and their different purposes of water using pattern. It is a qualitative analytical writing but data presentation is not so well. What are the actual or specific condition of peasant water sources and water using behavior not found in easily without more concentration in this writing?

‘Environment protection in developing countries’ (1993), edited by Najma Heptulla. It is a more relevance book of this study and from this book here consider a article which is ‘presentation of environmental pollution entire diseases through low cost sanitation’ written by Bindeshwar Pathak. This article is written on context of Indian perspective and shows that the sanitation condition among poor Indian is very miserable, for this most of the sanitation related diseases attack them and they always victimize for their low cost sanitation. To improve this situation he proposes some path how to minimize that situation. It is a more important book for its analytical perspectives. However, this witting was not conducted by considering field studies, most of the data of this article collect from secondary sources.
Rural Development: Putting the Lost First (1989) written by Robert Chambers it is a pure applied anthropological books. From this book, here consider the ‘chapter five’ for better understanding the criteria of poor people. In this chapter Chambers discusses the poor condition as more theoretical perspectives. He analysis here outsider perceptions about poor and what are their basic criteria of the poor people. It is more important book for this research perspective and provide more help to better understanding about migrants poor in urban area.

Chapter: Two


Sylhet city is situated in the northeastern part of Bangladesh. Now a day, Sylhet is form as a newly divisional head quarter and Sylhet city has been becoming as Municipal Corporation like any other municipal corporation of Bangladesh. Sylhet region has a basic criteria by its immigrant situation, most of the family has link with England by immigration of one or more members of this family. For these reasons there has more work places, which encourage poor village people to migrate this area, by conducting this research, Sylhet city is considering as its field, but in terms of the basic criteria of anthropology is a micro level study, Akhalia area of Sylhet city selected of this research field.

2.1 Geographical location

By geographical position, Akhalia area is situated in the northwestern part of the Sylhet city. It is about five-mile distance from the zero zone of the Sylhet city. In the Akhalia area, there are ten local areas. Which are Neharee Para, Surma Recidencial Area, Akhalia Ghat, University Area, Zugi Para, Brahman Shasan, Duskir, Ghoya Para, Kali Para, Noya Para, Boro Bari etc. Some local area covered the Akhalia area, such as south eastern part covered by Neharee Para; south western part covered by Akhalia Ghat; western part covered by University area: whole northern part covered by Zugipara and Duskin; and eastern part is Naya Para.

The out-sider area of Akhalia, in the northern side of Akhalia area is Dolia, Western side is Kumar Goung, southern side is Surma river of and eastern side Pathuntula area are situated. In the Akhalia area most of the migrants settle in the Noya para area, colony of No1 (near Noya para) and Zugipara areas. Data of this research mostly collect from these areas, but other area of Akhalia also conducted for the various purposes of this research.

2.2 Short History of this Area

Before 90’s, Akhalia area was not as developed as city area. When university was established in this area, the area had been becoming more important for economic sectors various governmental and non-governmental sectors invites for some institutions. For these purposes different kind of work place have developed, which encourage people to concentrate for incoming process of this city area. Since 1990’s outsider people have been settle in this area, majority of them are poor migrated people, they came from different part of Bangladesh. Now, there are four residential areas, which are Purbasha Recidencial Area, Surma Recidencial Area, Noyapara Recidencial Area and Sraboni Recidencial Area. People of those residential area, are not local but “Sylheti”. They come from different part of the Sylhet region, and settled in this area. Now Akhalia is a more important part of Sylhet city.

3.3 General criteria of migrated people

Migrants have different feature in this area. They have different statuses such as occupation, different aged, different sexes, and different cultural and ecological background. Within these situations, different migrated people carry different feature in terms of their different statues.

3.3.1 Occupation of Migrated people

In the Akhalia area migrated people have different pattern of occupation. There are two different situations are seen in terms of different sex group of migrated people in Akhalia area. The major occupations of male migrants are Rickshaw pullers, day laborer, driver, small businessman etc. 40% of male respondents are rickshaw puller, 28% are day laborer 16% are driver, 12% are low service holder and 47 are relate with different occupations. On the other hand, 40% of female respondents are maid servant, 26% are day laborer 20% are house wife, only 6.7% are low level service holder and remanding of them are related to other works. In the below tables and chart show these ratio of male and female occupation in this area.


  Table: Male occupation

Different male occupation
    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Rickshaw puller    10    40.0    40.0      
Day Laborar    7    28.0    68.0      
Driver    4    16.0    84.0      
Low service holder    3    12.0    96.0      
Other    1    4.0    100.0      
Total    25    100.0        

Table: Different occupation of female migrated people

Different Female occupation    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Maid Servant                           Maidservant    6    40.0    40.0      
House Wife    4    26.7    66.7      
Day laborer    3    20.0    86.7      
Low level service holder    1    6.7    93.3      
Other occupation    1    6.7    100.0      
Total    15    100.0       


3.3.2 Population and household pattern:

There are about 85 households and about 56 single migrants in this area. In the Akhalia area, most of this migrated house leader is male (about 50 household) and 35-house hold leader are female, they have no adult male person (who can work). Within the single migrated people there are about 35 of them are female. Most of the single migrated people live in a house by sharing. On an average 2 to 4 are live in a single room. These situations are lower in terms of female context; most of the female live in a room as individually. The below table shows the number of household and population pattern.

Table: Number of household and population pattern.

Different local area    Number of household    Number of single migrant    Total population      
Zugi Para    44    15    160      
Coloni No-1    25    9    115      
Naya Para    16    32    80      
Total    85    56    355   
Source: Primary research work.

The above table shows that different areas have different number of household and single migrated people. Zugi Para have 44-house hold but there are only 15 single migrants.  And in the Noya Para there are only 16 household and 32 single migrants, which are too large than Zugi Para. These differences have simple reasons, Zugi Para is situated in outside of this area and Noya Para is in the central of this area and more closer to the central position of Sylhet city. On the other hand, there are some variation in house rent, most of the family migrants try to settle here as because there house rent is lower than other area. Single migrants always choose to settle at that place which are more closer to central city and they do not feel so pressure for house rant, because they share a single room by two on more people.

2.3.3 Education

Migrated people have different pattern of educational level. Those migrated people have education; they acquired this in their previous home place. But children of migrated family have been continuing their education in the city area. There are only 30 families, they enroll their children in the school, and only 19 families are continuing their children’s education in this area. But most of the migrated family’s enrolled children dropout without completing their five years education (Primary level). Children enrollments are more relate to the parents education. But there are only 30 families, whose one of parents (mother or father) has previous education up-to high school level. There are only two people founded who had gone to the college in their previous home place.

2.3.4 Income and expenditure of migrated people

The study is conducted as population, those are migrated from village area and those people have basic criteria for this research as poor. In this study, poor people are not only defining by economically but also emphasizes on their social position and cultural background in their own society. Income and expenditure of this group of people are more different by other group of people in this area. In the Akhalia area, Upper level income is 5000 Tk. to 6500 Tk. per month and lower level income is 1200 Tk per month. There are only 27.5% of family have upper level income. But most of the families of upper level income have two or more income holder and those families have large family member. In the Akhalia area, there are 30% family or single migrated people have 2500 taka or less than 2500 taka income by per month, these are mostly single migrated people and remaining 42% people are in the middle level income holder. In the below table shown the different income group of migrated people in Akhalia area.

Table: Income of respondents' family (monthly)

Monthly income    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
1200.00    1    2.5    2.5      
1500.00    4    10.0    12.5      
2000.00    6    15.0    27.5      
2500.00    1    2.5    30.0      
3000.00    5    12.5    42.5      
3200.00    1    2.5    45.0      
3500.00    4    10.0    55.0      
4000.00    3    7.5    62.5      
4500.00    4    10.0    72.5      
5000.00    6    15.0    87.5      
6000.00    3    7.5            95.0      
6500.00    2    5.0           100.0      
Total    40    100.0       

Most of the incomes of all level income holders are expend their income in maintaining their daily consuming needs and paying their house rent. In the Akhalia area there are more common expending sectors are food, house rent, treatment, clothing, and education, cash sending to home place. In the Akhalia area, single male migrants have dependency to maintain their previous family needs. Majority part of their income they send for their family member who lives in their village area.
The migrated people of this area, nobody can fulfill their family needs by their current income. But they have no extra source of income to fulfill their need successfully.

The migrated people spend 50% of their income in their food and accommodation purposes, most of them are belong in lower level income and most of them are single male migrants, though they have low food and accommodation cost but they have to maintain their previous family needs.

2.3.5 Working condition

Different migrant have different working condition in their occupation place, most of the rickshaw puller have no own rickshaw, they occupy rickshaw by paying rent. For ten hour, they pay 35 Tk. per day to owner of the rickshaw. There are two shift working situation in the rickshaw pulling. Most of the rickshaw puller in Akhalia area is pulling rickshaw one shit in a day. Day laborer have no permanent works, they do not find work in regularly, most of the time they work in construction sectors of this city area. In this area, migrated people are mostly work in University construction sectors; they work in this sector nine hour (8 am to 5 pm) in a day. Maidservant of female migrants have different pattern of work-time in terms of their working place.


Table: Different work time of migrated people

Per day work time    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Ten hour    23    57.5    57.5      
Eight hour    12    30.0    87.5      
Six hour    5    12.5    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       

In the Akhalia area, there are more university student match and teacher houses, most of the female migrants are work in this sector for cooking, washing and other home activities. They have two or three shifts working time such as to prepare breakfast in the morning, lunch in the mid day and supper in the night. They go to the work place as two shifts, morning and evening shifts. In the morning shifts they completed breakfast and lunch and in the evening shift complete supper. Most of the female migrants prefer that work than other family’s work. In these work they find more time and more freedom in their work place.

2.3.6 Marital Status

Different migrated people have different pattern of marital status. This different situation is mostly seen in the marital perspectives of single migrated people. Those single migrants age 18-22, most of them are unmarried above 22 age singles male migrants have marital status in the in previous home place. These aged group people have two-type situation as married (those have partner in their previous home place) and divorced (those have not any partner). In the Akhalia area all of female single migrants had married in their previous home place but not all of them are divorced or separate.
Marital situation of family migrants of Akhalia area, they are married, but there have some differentiation. Newly married family of this area has previous marital experience. Both spouse are married before present marriage. There are 13 family that the leader of household (male) have another family in the in previous house place. In the Zogi Para area, two single migrants married in this area within one year.

2.3.7 Family pattern:

It is already mentioned that, most of the male single migrant’s family live in their rural area. Majority of them belonging in joint family pattern in their village area. Single female migrants have no family partner in the city area; most of the migrated families of this area are nuclear in their nature. There are only 2 family which are joint family’ in their nature, these family which are joint family have father, mother uncle, aunty and their children. One of the joint has their grand father who lives with commonly in this city area.
Table: Different family pattern of migrated people

Different type of family    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent       
Joint family    2    5.0    5.0      
Extended famil    12    30.0    35.0      
Conjugal Family    26    65.0    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       

There are some families, which have linkage with their previous village family. In this situation, they count as both side family members, same time they are the member of their previous family and their city family. These families are count in this study as extended family.
2.3.8 Formal and informal Facilities provided

Formal and informal facilities mean the institutional and non-institutional supports get migrated people in this area. There are some institution as mosque, club, market, NGO Organization and governmental organization. Migrated people have different type of access in these institutions, in their local mosque, they do not go as regularly, they always try to maintain Juma prayer on Friday. But these are not regularly possible for their working condition. In any special day of religion they go to mosque, but most of the time the local language briefing of before prayer by Imam, they cannot understand it, for this, this briefing is more painful for them.
In the Akhalia area there are three primary schools, BDR School, Brahmun Sasan School and Shakhpara primary school. Children of migrated people are enrolled in these schools but most of them do not continue their education, children opinions about this situation that their teachers always beat them, and for this they do not find any interest in their school. In the Akhalia area, there is a high school but there are no migrated children who enroll in this school. In this area there is a University (Shahjalal University of Science and Technology) but non-migrated people can dream that any of the children will enroll in this institution.
There are some club, such as Purbasha Kallan Shanstha, Brahman Shasan Juba Sangha, Those club are provided is some consciousness programs and they are also provide vaccine for the migrated children. But some of the migrants have complain about them, that some young member of these club make some sin-create with their female persons. BRAC and ASHA work in this area, 15 single female migrants and about 20 migrated families female persons are engaged in their credit program. In any health problems migrated people get treatment by local doctor in this area, but in the serious in juries they go to Osmani Medical College Hospital, which is situated in the five miles far away from their local area. Migrated people buy their daily needs (goods and services) from local market. There are three markets, which are Brahman Shasan, Bazaar, Akhalia Bazaar and Modina Market Bazaar.
Within above those different features Akhalia area has been becoming a busy zone in Sylhet city. People come here from different part of Bangladesh and arrange a cosmopolite ion culture. They have different cultural background; family background and they have different type of feature in terms of their own socio-cultural criteria. For these reasons, this area should be a fruitful study area for Urban Anthropology as well as other discipline of Social Science.

Chapter – Three


In the Akhalia area, there are different pattern of background migrated
People, most of them come from different part of village area of Bangladesh.
They have various pattern of way of lifestyle, various pattern of culture. In this Akhalia area, the migrated people have different kind of economical background, different pattern of socio cultural background.    

4.1 Previous Socio-cultural Pattern

Migrated people of Akhalia area come from different part of Bangladesh. They have been carrying various type culture feature, their language, religious activities, previous social position, food habit etc. are different in contest of other people. They have different type of family background.

4.1.1 Previous family pattern

There are three types family pattern of poor migrated people in Akhalia area. Most of the migrated people of this area come from joint family, within this family type they live with jointly. Their father mother, brother sister and other kin members all of them share one Chula. All of them have equal share in their agricultural production (most of them were farmer) and get equal services from their family. In the Akhalia area, some migrated people have other type of family background, such as extended and conjugal family. In following table and chart shown the ratio of different type of family background of poor migrated people in Akhalia area.            
Table:   Previous family pattern

Different type of family     Frequency    Percent          Cumulative
Conjugal family    4    10.0    10.0      
Extended family    14    35.0    45.0      
Joint family    22    55.0    100.0      
Total    40    100.0        
Source: Research work, Course No- ANP 400, 2001-2002.

4.1.2 Religious background and the position of migrated people:

Migrated people have different religious background, majority of migrated people come from Muslim religion and they have different pattern in area to area. All of them are Muslim Sunni, but they have particular ideology in terms of their particular follower such as Pir. In their previous home society, their religious position depend on family background and their economic position in their society. Most of Muslim migrated people do not practices their religious activities in regularly. But on Friday as Juma day they always go to the mosque for Juma prayer. Most of the areas’ people did not face any discrimination in mosque in the time of prayer, but some cases shows that there has different position for different group of people. Majority Muslim migrated did not participate in any activities of religion, they were absent in these occasion. In the Akhalia area their are some other religious migrated people, 17% of them Hindu and only two person are Upajati, though they practices Hindu religious activities. All of the Hindu migrated people come from lower class position of their society. In the following table and chart shown the ratio of the different group of religious migrated people.     

 Table: Previous religious position of respondents

Religion    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Hindu    7    17.5    17.5      
Muslim    31    77.5    95.0      
Other    2    5.0    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       
Source: Research Work, Course No- ANP 400, 2001- 2002.

4.1.3 Social position of migrated people:

In their village area, migrated people were belonging in a particular social position. To being in a particular society they always contact with other people. This position was create by achieve or ascribe. Those people have strong economical position and strong family background they have upper level position. All of the area of Bangladesh, there are mostly seen the same situation.   
In the Akhalia area, migrated people have three level of social position. These are upper level, middle level and lower level. Most of the migrated people (67.5%) of Akhalia area come from lower level social position. In their previous home place, lower level people have not participation in any social activities. In the following table and chart shows the different position of social level.

Table: Previous social position of respondents

Level of position    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Lower level    27    67.5    67.5      
Middle level    10    25.0    92.5      
Upper level    3    7.5    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       
Source: Source: Research Work, Course No- ANP 400, and 2001- 2002.

4.1.4 Previous Food habit

Migrated people had different pattern of food culture in their previous home place .Different area of Bangladesh, there has different pattern of food habit , these food habit are related their occupation level , Most of the agriculture based family food are supply from their own production. These farming  family’s daily meal had very different from other occupational people . They daily complete their breakfast by rice or rice made other food , such as  panta vath , mori , khai , rich-cakes etc. The breakfast of this type family had  different by age based and sex  based . Children and male person always favor hot rich and female person take panta vath , if not they take other thin food (chira, mori etc). Other family those are not directly related with farming suppose rickshaw puller and small businessmen, their food habit are different then farming family. Most of the time they take their breakfast by ruti. In these family elder people take one time by rice such as in the lunch time, but in supper they complete by ruti.  

4.2 Previous Economical Background

In the Akhalia area, migrated people have different background of economic position. Most of the migrated people were farmer in their previous home place, but all of them had no cultivable land in their village. They work in others peoples’ land, sometime they sell their labor and sometime they produce by sharing. Data shows that the majority people have land, but all of them had no equal position in their home place. All of the areas of Bangladesh have no equal land value. In the low land area of Bangladesh, most of the land affected by flood, the people of these area produce in their land in one time of a year. Migrated people of these areas had land but not satisfaction from their output. Migrated people have different type occupation in their previous home place, such as farmer, rickshaw puller, small businessman, day laborer etc. majority migrated people (50%) have farming background, 17.5% of migrated people was small businessman, these type of occupational background focuses on the following table and chart.  

Table: Previous occupation of respondents

Different occupation    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Small farmer (no land)    8    20.0    20.0      
Small farmer (have land)    12    30.0    50.0      
Land labor    4    10.0    60.0      
Rickshaw puller    5    12.5    72.5      
Small businessman    7    17.5    90.0      
Other occupation    4    10.0    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       

Source: Source: Research Work, Course No- ANP 400,
2001- 2002.

In the Akhalia area, the migrated people had different type of assets in their home place, such as crops land, house land (basat bari), house (ghar), ponds, bamboo garden, domestic animals etc. There are different types of land owning pattern, majority of the migrated people had land but above one-acre land had only twenty-five percents people. In the following table focuses the ratio of landowner of migrated people.    

Table: Previous assets (land) of respondents

Assets(land)    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
No land    13    32.5    32.5      
One acre    17    42.5    75.0      
above one acre    10    25.0    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       
Source: Source: Research Work, Course No- ANP 400,
2001- 2002.

In their previous home place most of the migrated people had different pattern of socio-cultural and economical background position, they are settle is this newly form settlement area and also share with some particular urban features in order to continue their life-living practices in urban area.

                                          Chapter – Four  


5.1Previous Home Place of Migrated

Migrated people of Akhalia area come from different area of Bangladesh. In this studies, to analysis different area of Bangladesh by dividing six divisional patterns as Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulna, Barisal and Sylhet, migrated people come from different village area of these divisions. In the Sylhet division, majority migrated come from Hobigonj and Sunamgonj district; in the Chittagong division majority of them come from Comilla, Chandpur, Noakhali and Chittagong districts; in Dhaka division majority come from grater Mymensingh and greater Dhaka district; in Rajshahi division most of the migrated people come from Rangpur, Bogra, Naogoan, Gaibanda and Rajshahi; in Khulna division most of them come from Khulna, Bagerhat, Gopalgonj district; and in Barisal division majority migrated people are come from Barishal, Jhalakathi and Bhola district. In the Akhalia area majority (27.5%) migrated people come from different district of Sylhet division, 25% migrated people come from Rajshahi division and majority of them Rangpur district.  In the below table shows the ratio of migrated people come from different area of Bangladesh.

Table: Previous home place for migrated people

Different village area of migrated people    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Other districts of Sylhet division    11    27.5    27.5      
Come from Dhaka division    7    17.5    45.0      
Come from Chittegong division    5    12.5    57.5      
Come from Khulna division    4    10.0    67.5      
Come from Rajshahi division    10    25.0    92.5      
Come from Barishal division    3    7.5    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       
 Source: Research Work, Course No- ANP 400, 2001-2002.      

5.2 Causes of Migration

Migrated people have various causes for their migration in city area. They leave their home place and migrated in an unknown area is more painful to them. In terms world geographical pattern, Bangladesh is in vary crucial place, most of the destroyed natural climates are seen in different part of this country. In every year, majority parts of Bangladesh are affected by flood. In recent time (1988 and 1998) Bangladesh has painful experience by flood. On the other hand, different parts of Bangladesh have different type of natural disaster, such as river erosion, drought, cyclone etc. All of these disasters affect in the life living entities of poor people in the village area. On the other hand, some migrated people have high ambitious about their life, they try to change lifestyle by changing their home place and occupation. Within the situations two factors selected as the causes of migration in this area, these are ‘push factor’ and ‘pull factor’. Majority people (55%) of Akhalia area migrated by push factors and rest of them for pull factors.  In following table shown, the ratio of the causes of push and pull factors in migration.
                                        Table: Causes of migration

Factors of migration    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent       
push factors    22    55.0    55.0      
pull factors    18    45.0    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       
          Source: Research Work, Course No- ANP 400, 2001-2002.

5.2.1 Push factors

Push factors is connected with migration include floods and natural disaster, erosion, growing landlessness, exploitation by the rural elites and money lenders, family conflicts and other causes. In the Akhalia area, majority push migrants have main causes of economic hardship ness in their previous home place. Increasing population and other factors make more impact to create this situation. In the village area of migrated people, they had no works. As poor people, they couldn’t live without work by daily work in order to continue their daily meal and fulfill other needs of their family. For these reason they always tried to leave their home place and migrated in the city area. Natural disasters also create this situation, by floods, river erosion and other disasters they lost their land and other living entities. In some cases it is shown that the family conflict and village politics also create pressure to migrants to lave their home place. In the below table and chart shown the scenery of different push factors of migration in the Akhalia area.

Table: Causes of migration (Push factors)

Different push factors    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent       
Economic Hardship    7    31.8    31.8      
Disaster    4    18.2    50.0      
Village Faction    3    13.6    63.6      
Family Conflict    4    18.2    81.8      
Other    4    18.2    100.0      
Total    22    100.0       

Source: Research Work, Course No- ANP 400, 2001-2002.        
5.2.2 Pull factors

The idea is widespread that city provides paths to wealth. Although the case of success always seem exaggerated in the minds of potential rural migrants, cities with their relatives’ concentration of wealth evidence that prosperity in cities is at least possible. The dream of success despite the frequent reality of failure is the heart of most decision to migrants. In the Akhalia area some migrants had that type reality. Majority pull migrants came to the city by attraction of city life. They think that city is a more interesting and successive area, where all people are happy; there has no conflict as village politics. Some migrants come for the better working facilities. In previous time they thought that city had more working facilities and when he comes to the city he get a work which has more facilities and economic opportunities than his village work. In the following table and chart focuses the different type of pull factors and its impact scenery of migration.

Table: Causes of migration (Pull factors)

Different pull factors    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent       
Attraction of city life    5    27.8    27.8      
Working facilities    6    33.3    61.1      
Increasing salary    5    27.8    88.9      
Other    2    11.1    100.0      
Total    18    100.0       
Source: Research Work, Course No- ANP 400, 2001-2002. 

5.3 Gender Factors of Migration:

Gender is a crucial factor of city ward migration. In the Akhalia area there are 33% female migrants. All of them had marital status, but majority of them now in divorced or separated from their husband. Most of the divorced female migrants had more suffering experience in their previous home place. All of them had torched experience by their husband or other persons of her husband’s family. They have come hare with their nearest relatives or other relatives. All that time they also cheated by their relatives; some female had sexual torturous experience by other male persons of her locality. On the other hand, female migrants had interest to migrate city area, they thought that in the city area, nobody could identify her and she could choose any type of works. In the village area, they had more difficulties to work in out side their house; through they had needed in terms of their economic condition. There had some female migrants who are migrate with their husbands. In the Akhalia area there are female migrants who had suffering experience when she migrated in the city area, after few month her husband leave her (not divorce) and further not meet with her. At that time she had no works, she did not know the city situation as well as city life. She had to face more crucial moments at this situation, at last she try to go back to home place, that time she discuss with a single female migrants and propose her for not backing she manage a work for her as maid servant. Then she stays hare since two years. 
Case history:

5.4 The Process of Migration

In the Sylhet city most of the migrated people come here after the declaration of Sylhet as a ‘division’. After declaration, Sylhet city will be Municipal Corporation and there have create new area of works for poor people. Simultaneously at that time new institutions have been form in this area, such as SUST. (Shahjalal University of Science and Technology). Those institutions take various type constructional projects, which have need more daily working people to work as day laborer. On the other hand, Sylhet has a different type feature than other area of Bangladesh; most of the rickshaw puller and low-level worker Such as day laborer came from different districts of this country. Majority previous migrated people of this area always encourage their poor relatives or friends to come to the Sylhet city and they assurance them they would be acquire woks in this area. In the Sylhet city, most of the poor migrated people come here with the help of their relatives and known persons of their locality. Within this process of migration, there have two different migrants such as individual migrants and family migrants. Individual migrants have two different pattern, single male migrants and single female migrants. Family migrants have also two different patterns, some of the family came hare with their children and some of them come with no children. Above discussion focuses another away:


          Individual migrants                                 Family Migrants
Male                                 Female      With children              Without children

In the Sylhet city, male people come hare with the help of their relatives and other known person of their locality. Some of the single male individual comes hare by individually. Female migrants come here with nearest relatives and under-nearest relatives such as her sister’s brother-in-low. Family always migrated here with the help of their nearest relatives. In the below table shown the different pattern of relatives those help the migrated people to migrated in this city.

In the Akhalia area, most of the migrants came here within two years. There have some migrants those stay in this area above two years. In following table focuses the different time of migration of migrated people in Akhalia area.

5.5 Relationship with Home Place

Migrated people have various causes to leave their home place, but after their setting in the city area, they try to maintain their relationships with their relatives who live in their previous village. They visit their home place as frequently and simultaneously express welcome their relatives to visit their city area. Data shows that those migrated belong in their previous home place as jointly the ratio of relation maintaining have more then other people. In terms of different pattern of migration, individual male migrants regular maintain their relation with their home place. They visit their home place within two months, but that type of scenery have not seen in terms of the situation of single female migrants. Within two years, they have no relation with their village. Most of the family migrants have relation with their village people but they visit their village by long gap, only they visit their village in any occasional time such as marriage ceremony of their nearest relative. In the following table shows the relation-maintaining pattern of different migrated people with their previous home place.

Table: Relationship with Previous Home Place

Pattern of relation    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Visit within two month    10    25.0    25.0      
Visit within six month    12    30.0    55.0      
Visit within one year    8    20.0    75.0      
Visit within two year    4    10.0    85.0      
No relation    6    15.0    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       

Source: Research Work, Course No- ANP 400, 2001-2002.

On average, all of the migrated people of Akhalia area come from six divisional part of Bangladesh. They have different causes for their migration, and they have different interest to migrate in the city area. Migrated people have different social and gender position, they have various experience in terms of the situation of their migration. In the Akhalia area poor migrated people migrated by different processes and linkage with the other people of them are not same, they have different situation within the maintaining relationship with their village relatives.

Chapter: Five
    Sanitation Behavior in Countryside   

Bangladesh is a multi-ethnic state, it is not only its so called variation, but there are different cultural pattern in order to its different part of society. People are mobilized their life living practices in their own society within the contact with different ecological factors. Sanitation is one of the factors, which people of different areas contact differently. There water related behavior, food sanitation, drainage system; solid waste disposal and latrine behavior are different in terms of the different part of this country.

5.1 Water related behavior

In Rural Area water related behavior reflects within the two sectors, firstly from where people collect their water or what are the sources of water and how people interact with these sources; secondly, how people use water or how they are interacted with water in terms of their different purposes of water using.

5.1.1 Sources of water

In Akhalia area, different Migrated people have different types of experiences in their village about sources of water. It is different from their using purpose, drinking and other purposes of water. On average, in the village area there are four types of water sources in all over the country. These are tube well, ponds, lake and tank (small ponds). Village areas of every Migrated people have ponds and tanks but different part of rural area of Bangladesh have different number of ponds. In Comilla region, there is a pond or tank for every ten family. In Rangpur region, there is a pond for every 30 families. In Greater Mymensingh area every 20 families have a pond, in Khulna region every 50 families have a pond. Most of the migrated people use tube-well water for their drinking purposes in their previous home place. In Comilla, Mymensingh and Satkhira Bagerhat area, every 15 families use a tube-well. In Barishal area, there are every 25 family have only one tube-well in their village area. There are different type of tube-well in different part of Bangladesh for their agricultural sector they use deep tub-well, shallow deep tube-well Hand pump tube-well (TARA PUMP). All of these are used for irrigation sector in agriculture. But in the dry season, people collect this water for their drinking purposes. Lake and tank are the major sources of water for irrigation in Comilla and different districts of Dhaka division.

5.1.2 Water Use in Different purposes

People use water in various purposes, but people of different area use water in different categories. Migrated people, in their previous home place, use water in differently from their present city life. They had different need in order to use of water in their village. Water has common purpose as consuming, but pattern of water consuming is different in various part of this country. In Akhalia area, there are 70% of migrated people use tube-well water for consuming and remaining part of the people use water for consuming from different sources, such as ponds, canals and tanks. There is no one family who use a tube-well only by their own family. They share tube-well water with other families. They store water in pitchers or like any other storage jars.

Table: Water use in different purposes

Different purpose of water using    Percent    Cumulative Percent       
Consumiion    22.5    22.5      
Agriculture    32.5    55.0      
Bathing and Washing    25.0    80.0      
Ritual Management    15.0    95.0      
Other Purposes    5.0    100.0      
Total    100.0       

In village area people use water for washing their clothes, dishes and any other tools of material culture. Most of the migrated people wash their cloth in ponds that are found in near about their house. Ponds are mostly use in village area for various purposes of washing. Village people prefer to wash their dishes and any other cooking instruments by pond water in terms of the causes of collection possibility of water. They use water from lake and river for their agriculture in irrigation season or any other time at agricultural periods. Since, last five years most of the migrated people (who migrated in that time) have deep tube-well in their village area for their agricultural sectors.

Most of the migrated people take theirs bath by ponds water in their previous home place. But, there are some families in the village area that their home residence are situates near any canal or river, they use water for there bathing from these sources. People of this area also wash their dishes, cooking instruments and other material instrument with this source of water. Village people also use water for bathing their animals by ponds, canals and rivers water, which are closer to them and they also prefer that.
Village people have some special belief about water using. Most of the Muslim migrated people pray sura in the drinking time. They use water for removing polluted mind and their physical body conducting ‘Aju’ before they say their prayer of any other religious activities.
They use water as purity and pollution factors, none of Muslim village people use water sources at the time of there urinate. They always use water as a purity thing in the natural world. But that situation is not same for all the village people. Children and rough (So-called) people do not maintain this religious rule in regularly.

5.3 Pattern of latrine

By latrine related behavior different people have different pattern in the village area. Their are various type of latrine, they have different pattern of uses latrine and different types of ritual among latrine.

5.3.1 Type of latrine

In their village area migrated people used different type of latrine. Most of the migrated people used katcha latrine, which are constructed as deep whole in near their house land these latrines are walled by different type of leafs. Most of these types of latrines have not any shade. In village area there are another common type of latrines, which are hanging latrine over canals, rivers. And any other water bodies. Where canals and rivers are more found, people of those areas, use these type of latrines. Migrated people used another type of latrine in their home place, which is open latrine, this is not any formal place latrine. That type situation, people used latrine, where ticked are more found.
Table: Different type of latrine

Different type of latrine    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Katcha latrine    27.5    27.5      
Hanging latrine    32.5    60.0      
Open latrine    27.5    87.5      
Sanitary latrine    12.5    100.0      
Total    100.0       

Most of the time this type of latrine is found in the bank of the rivers and canals. In the village area there are some sanitary latrine, generally upper class village people use these types of latrines. These latrines are constructed by 4/5 rings, which are properly fit into the ground as one over another in land level (top of the ring) fit a slave (such as commode).

5.3.2 Using pattern:

Village people have different using pattern of latrine, female people use latrine in the morning when most of the people are not woke up from their bed. Some male person also used latrine at that time but most of the time they use open latrine in their work place where rivers and canals are more found. Adult person of a family used open or hanging latrine in the morning, most of the time children and older people of these families use latrine, as informally, these types of latrines are very risky for them. They generally use open latrine near their house. Katcha latrine, open latrine and hanging latrine spread bad smell when people use these latrine, they cover their mouth by some cloth. Most the people feel as very boring moment at that situation.

5.3.2 Latrine related behavior in the village area

From inside the body, when people feel pressure for latrine, they go to the toilet and clear their excreta. Village people generally go to the latrine with bear foot. Most of the time, they do not use sandle as any other shoes. They use shoes when they go to any occasion or any formal place.
At the latrine time they think that it is not more important to use shoes or any other sandle before latrine they always complete their present work which are continue at that time. They need more time to use latrine. They think that latrine is a more profane area, when they go to latrine; they put on bad or unusable (commonly) cloth. After latrine, they try to refresh their body.
Most of the village women take both after using latrine. Most of the village people do not use water in the latrine place. Most of the time they wash after latrine in the open water in ponds, river on any other water bodies, At that time they maintain secrete ness from other people some time they have to wait for a long time in the bank of any pond or river or canals for secrete ness or a lonely place. After latrine they use clay or any other ashes for washing their hands. Open wash one’s posterior after using latrine, village people use same water for washing their hand mouth and legs.
In the village area, people have some beliefs about their latrine. They think that the latrine area is a vary bad area, at night, some bad ancestor are stay in their latrine. So when they use latrine at night they contain fire at that time some time pregnant woman children do not go to latrine at night. If needed, some body will company with them at that time.

5.3.3 Previous food taking Behavior and personal hygiene

Village people have three-meal time in their village area. When they woke up from their bed they wash their hand and face by water. They do not use brash to wash their teeth. They wash their teeth with ashes, teals or any other natural thing. Most of the time they use their fingure to brush their teeth. After washing their mouth they take their food for first time, include these food as well, mori, chira, khai, rice cake ruti (hand made bread in their own home). Poor people go to their work place with taking these. In the village area has some family where people take another breakfast with water rice or hot rice. Most of the farmer’s families have that type of tradition.
After their breakfast, they go to their work place and work at daylong. In their cropping season they do not back to their home at lunch. At that time, they take their lunch in their work place. They take their lunch in open-air position without washing or bathing. At that time they simply wash their hand and mouth in near about any drain (Which are used for irrigation water supply) or any canals. People back to their home at sunset time and bath in the ponds, then they again take food and go out from their house. At the evening time, they spend their time by gossiping in near tea stall by taking tea. After evening they come back their home and take their night meal and then they go to their bed.
Female and children have different pattern of food taking behavior and personal hygiene. Female person takes their breakfast by thin food. Then they go to there work mostly they work in their homes, as they preparing their crops for storage or cooking. In the midday, they go for bathing with their children. In some village area, children take both with other children of their locality. Then they come back to their home and take their lunch. After the lunch children go to work place by carrying the meal for their family’s elder people who work in the field.
At that time women go to their work place for continuing their work. Then they prepare food for supper, after cooking, they always try to wash their body as well as possible or as well their personal habit.

5.3.4 Drainage system and solid waste in the village area

Village areas have no drainage system as city areas. There are some natural drains in rainy season. Rainwater flow in these drains from their house, some village people constructs drain as katcha level in their house. Most of the time these drains are link with their ponds village people also construct a hollow cave’ for using their daily waste (Solid waste) as dirty water, cooking waste and any other output waste. House drain is linkage with these ‘hollow caves’. During flood time, when water is over flow on their land and spread their house area, these ‘hollow caves’ also over flow and most of the peptide solid waste spread all over the house area and its also spread with pond water. These situations are found all over the flood areas of this country.

5.3.5 Sanitation Related Diseases

In the village area there are some common diseases, which are, more closely related with their sanitation behavior. Including these diseases as well diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, warm inflection, scabies and malaria, Most of the migrated family have affect in their home place by diarrhea and dysentery in every year. These situations are mostly seen in flood crisis areas. But in the Drought season these diseases are also affect people by their infection. Mostly, in the village area, children are affecting by these diseases. Most of the times they have not find proper treatment for these diseases. That time some people have to fail to survive from these diseases only for lack of proper treatment.
On the other hand, in the diseases affected time, village sanitation situation were more decrease than their previous level. For this, the situation will be more crucial and create a serious affected area.
In above discussion focuses the general situation of village sanitation pattern of migrated people. They had not any scientific knowledge, but they always try to maintain their purity and cleaning practices. Which are closer to sanitation level. They have some particular personal hygiene, which they practice in terms of their own ecological context.


Akhalia is a newly from urbanized area, at this formation periods poor people migrated here and they try to adjust their life in this new formations. In ordered to adjustment within that type situation, poor migrated people have to face some crucial factors. Water is that type factors in this area, but it is most living entities in all over the world. For this reason, they create a new formation of social relation in terms of the collection of their sufficient water. There are some different patterns among water related behavior of poor migrated people; they have different pattern of water sources and different pattern of water using practices in this area.

8.1 Major Water Source in Akhalia Area

Most of the migrated people depend on tube well for their daily usable water. In the three local areas of migrated people in Akhalia, there are only 14 tube well, Coloni no1 has 4 tube wells Naya Para has 4 tube well and Zugi Para has 6 tube wells. In the Zugi Para area, there are 160 people used only 6 tube wells and on the other hand, only two families use a tube well in this area, remaining 42 household used only 5 tube wells. Coloni no-1 area has 115 people and they have 4 tube wells, within these only 10 household use 2 tube wells and remaining household use another 2 tube wells. In the Noya Para area there are 16 household for 2 tube wells and 32 single migrants have 2 tube wells, but only ten single female migrants use 1 tube well and remaining 22 male migrants have a single tube well in this area.

Table: Number of tube well in migrated people area.

Different local area    Total population    Number of tube well      
Zugi Para    160    6      
Coloni No- 1    125    4      
Naya Para    80    4   
Source: Primary Survey of this research.

In the three local area of migrated people in Akhalia have two ponds Coloni no-1 have a pond, but the people have no owning share in this pond but they used this water source by special permission and with some conditions. In the Zugi para area there is a small pond sometime poor migrated people use it’s water. Because owner of this pond has objection to using it’s water. In the Noya para area there has a tank (kuaa) the owner of their house and the owner of the tank is the same person, for this they always use this water as frequently. This sources of water mostly used by male single migrated people in this area within these three local areas there are only Noya para has supply water (Washa’s water) which are provide by Washa of Pourashaba. Only two household of migrated family have used this water sources. For this service, they have to provide extra rent to their owner of the house hold with their house rent. In the below table shows the different water sources in the migrated people areas of Akhalia in sylhet city.

Different local area    Tube Well    Pond    Tank    Supply Water (Number of family)      
Zugi Para    6    1    No    no      
Coloni No-1    4    No    1    no      
Naya Para    4    No    1    2 family    
Source: Primary survey of this research.

8.2 Water Using Pattern of Poor Migrated People

The ‘use of, water’ have various aspects; in this study have been concern among those variation. Obviously, water is also at the central attention of those who have the asepsis view of sanitation and water related more concern for cleanliness among the migrants is the use of water. Cleanliness refers not only to a physical state, but also to a state of mind. However, water plays a critically important role in all aspect of cleanliness, from physical to spiritual. Let us now consider the various areas of life where is used and the different properties that are attached to it in these different uses.

8.2.1 Water for Human Consumption

Water is a more important thing for every human being to minimize ones thirst of migrants people use water for drinking in the different situation from different sources. The major source of drinking water is tube well, which they share among all of the migrants of their area. In the summer season, when water level decreased in underground, the hands operate shallow tube well fail to pumping water from more underground level. Then most of the migrants use other sources of water for their drinking. At that time, majority people used ponds water from near their ponds, but in summer season, hot weather minimize water level and the surrounding people of this ponds area increase used this sources of water as frequently. So the drinking quality of this ponds water has becoming too much low. Without any other alternative they have to bound use this water. That time they storage water from near of the ponds in different jars and pitchers. In this is some migrated people used ponds water for drinking purposes by boiling. However majority migrants used ponds water by mixing fitkary.
Household leader of migrants people stay all day long outside their house for their occupation. At that time they used outsider water from different places. Migrant’s rickshaw puller moving here and there, for that type occupation, they desire more water. To fulfill their thirsty they go to the near about any tea stat for drink, at that time they does not try to know what are the source of this water. Other occupations have same scenery of them.
Migrants drink water mainly at three time in a day, when they take meal they drink more water, but after meal they drink little more water. On average male migrants drink water is more than female migrants, because more water drinking create more urinates pressure, male people can do this any where but female cannot do this. For this, they always try to drink little water in their work place. Most of the family migrants has glass and maug’ for using drinking or any other liquid. But most of the male single migrants have not any glass for drinking water they used omitted bottle of any other soft drinking organism including Coca Cola, Pepsi etc, sometime little children of migrated family drink water directly from tube well.
On average 60% adult people of migrated area, regular drink about 3 liter water, 20% drink 2 liter and other remaining migrated people drink only 1.5 liter water in per day. Majority children of migrated family per day about drink 1.5 liter in average. In the below table show the ratio of different pattern of water people drink in a day.
      Table: Ratio of per day Drinking water

Quantity of water    Number of people    Percent      
3 liter    24    60%      
2 liter    5    20%      
1.5 liter    8    20%      
Total    40    100%   
     Source: Research Work, Course No- ANP 400, 2001-2002.   

8.2.2 Water for Washing

Cleanliness is mostly depending on the peoples washing by water. It is a major usable sector of water that is the cleansing of body, tools and different aspect of the material culture. By washing people fell that they are becoming pure from impurity of their body and mind. Migrated people used water for washing as differently. They use water for washing their cloths; most of the migrants used ponds water for washing their cloth. But there has some differentiation, such as those are more costly cloths for them they wash it in the tube well water, because ponds water is not so-clear as tube well water. That type cloths they puts on only any occasion time, some migrants have views that the tube well water have some organ that change their cloths color particularly white color cloths. For this, they always wash the white cloths in the ponds water by searching clearly.
People wash their body in bathing with different types of water. Most of the migrants use ponds water for bathing. They bath in the afternoon when they comeback from their works. In their house, without bathing they feel impurity, so they always try to take bath. But when they come back from work place, they have to need prepare their food for their children or themselves (mostly seen female migrated people), on the other hand that time all people come back from work place, the bathing area becoming busy. In that situation they soak any cloth with water and clear their body in their house.  With this washing pattern they have not satisfy, impurity is not removing from their mind. Mostly, children of migrated people take bath in by ponds. They always prefer that water.
Most of the time female migrant’s people go to the bath in ponds by jointly with the other female neighbors; they have created a relation within that situation. In the Noya Para area, there has no pond, migrant’s bath in this area by tube well water. In the time of bathing, they have to face competition for a acquired tube well for bath, most of the time they have to wait long time for get tube well as free. Children of this area mostly avoid bath, migrated parents have to create pressure for bathing their children. In the winter season this areas’ people face more crisis to maintain their regular bathing. Because, that time they get little water from their tube wells, by this little water it is too difficult to maintain they’re desired.
By water, people wash their regular cooking instrument, which are include regular using dishes, cooking pots, glass, spoons etc. Mostly this work play by female migrants people of this area. They wash it’s in the morning with their own hygiene of there body in the morning shifts. Migrated people used water for clearing after using latrine, and then they wash their hand leg and month.
For all washing the migrated people will try to seek out ‘clean’ water, which will be identified by its relative clarity and absences of visible contaminants as opposed to ‘dirty;’ or polluted water which will be murky, middy or containing visible pollutants. Thus a distinction is made between what is it fit for cleansing purposes and what, which is polluted.

8.2.3 Water Use for Cooling

As poor migrated people they are more oppressed in economical level in their own situation. In the summer season, when they come back from their work, they have feel more hotly as physically. They always try to cool their body by anyhow. But for their economical condition they cannot arrange electrical facilities by their own income. They have only one way that they have to do soak their body with water. Most of the migrants do that type attitude in the summer season. On the other hand migrant people use water at that purposes, when any body affected by fever and their body will more hot by affection, they always try to cool their body by using water.

8.2.4 Water for ritual management

Water function as ritual cleanliness, people use water for removing their body and mind from impurity to pure. Migrated people have some belief about water using. They used water for various purposes of religious activities. Muslim migrated people used water being Aju (ablution) before their prayer. Particularly they have beliefs among water for its purity, if people contained more sin by his badly activities, but when he properly practices Aju by pure water, he will remove from sin. The use of water is central to this form of ablution and can be dispensed with only in those circumstances where it is completely unavailable.
In Hindu migrant families, as well, water plays a crucial role during rites of purification. If Hindu people touch any impure thing such a human excreta, the body has becoming impure in according to their religious role. For this reason people will be treat as polluted, but this pollution, may be remove only by washing with water, they have another type of belief about water, they belief that every water is related with the river Gangous which is consider sacred. For this reason, they cannot play any profane work with water.
Another use of water as a part of transformation rituals is on various healing practices, such as ‘pani para’. At that situation people used water as a medium of blessing. Most of the migrated people used blessing water for removing any kind of illness, which are blessed by any folk healer. In the Akhalia area there is a folk healer, he blessed water for removing from ‘jaundice’ diarrhea and other profane diseases. They belief that most of the time they over come their physical crisis by using his blessing water.

In below provide a chart, which focuses the different purpose of water using pattern of migrated people in this area. The chart shows that water use mostly in three purposes, such as consuming, bathing and washing different things. Some water also use in other different purposes as well water used for ritual management that includes different healing purposes water using and water used for sanctity as well after using latrine.  

8.3. Water and Social Interaction

Migrated people contact with other people for various causes, in their particular area; they have different types of social relation with other people. They have a newly form of social relation in terms of the sharing water among with other people in his particular area. Migrated people share tube well by different families. Most of the time this type social relation maintained by female persons of this areas. Female persons collect drinking water from their local tube well, mostly in the tube well place found one or more persons work by using tube well water. At that time, they talking with each other and sharing their daily experience in this place. On this tube well place, they maintain their relation with other people.
In the Coloni no-1 there is an interesting story about the tube well place. A unmarried girl make her love affair by using this place. Every morning she come here for washing her family dishes and that time her male partner come here for his morning washing (wash his mouth). They had opportunity to talk with each other. By regular continue this activities they feel each other and make love affair.

In conclusion, its say that water plays a havoc role in the life living practice of migrated people. They use water in different purposes and they collect water from various sources. Within these both situations, water plays an important social role to maintain social relation with different migrated people.

Chapter: Seven


Sanitation as a way of life: ‘It is the quality of living expressed in clean homes, clean neighborhoods, and a clean community. Being a way of life it must come from its people is nourished by knowledge and grows as the obligation and ideal in human relation’ (USA national sanitation foundation). Sanitation has a wide connotation. It relate to the safe disposal of human excreta, waste water and solid waste, water supply, domestic and personal hygiene, food sanitation and housing etc. In the Akhalia area, the behavior of poor migrated people among sanitation is very different in terms of their newly adaptable city area. They come from different background of cultural pattern and different life way. In this city area, their behavior among sanitation is more influenced  by their previous experience.

9.1    Latrine Use of Migrated People

Migrated people have different type of latrine related behavior. Particular people have particular pattern of behavior for using latrine and they use different type of latrine in their locality in terms of their own socio-economic position in a particular area.

7.1.1 Different Type of Latrine

There are differently five type of latrine found, such as pacca latrine, semi-pacca latrine, open latrine, shift latrine and no particular place for latrine, Only 11 pacca latrines are found in the three local areas of migrated people. Zugi Para area has 4 latrines and Noya Para and Coloni No-1 has about 3 and 4. But sharing practices of pacca latrine is very different. In the Zugi Para area, there are only 4 families who use 2 pacca latrines and in Noya Para area there is 1 peace latrine used by one family. These situations are  also found in the colony No-1. In the Akhalia area, most of the migrated people use semi-pacca latrine. About 32.5% of migrated people use that type of latrine. There are some open and shifting latrines. Open latrine is that type of latrine, which has no hollow, or excreta storage, people give up their excreta in open place. However, some of the open latrines have outsider wall. Shift latrine means, those type latrines which can shift in time after time. In the Akhalia area, there are 10% shift latrine. Some of the  migrated people in this area whose have no particular place for using the excreta. They leave it here and there.
Table:   Ratio of different type of latrine used by poor migrated people

Different Type of Latrine    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Pacca Latrine    11    27.5    27.5      
Semi-Pacca Latrine    13    32.5    60.0      
Open Latrine    7    17.5    77.5      
Shift Latrine    4    10.0    87.5      
No Particular Place for Latrine    5    12.5    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       

Source: Research Work, Course No.- ANP 400, 2001- 2002.

7.1.2: Using Pattern of Latrine:

In the Akhali area people use latrine in difficulty. On average, most of the people in this area, use per latrine by 11 to 15 household. At that situation most of them use semi-pacca latrine. Migrated people in this area are engaged in different type of occupation and most of them go to their work place at morning. At that time they always try to use their latrine. But in this area all of the latrines become very busy, most of the time they have to wait for acquired their latrine. Some time this situation create quarrel with the sharing people of a particular latrine.

Table: Sharing Pattern of Using Latrine

Per latrine share by household    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
1 to 5 Household    3    7.5    7.5      
6 to 10 Household    12    30.0    37.5      
11 to 15 Household    18    45.0    82.5      
16 to 20 Household    7    17.5    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       
Source: Research Work, Course No.- ANP 400, 2001- 2002.

Source: From above table.

Most of the latrine of this area spread bad smell, when people use latrine they covere their mouth with clothes for remaining the bad smll. In the Akhali area children of migrated people do not use latrine place in regularly. Most of the time they use open place for their latrine and most of the time these place are in near their house. In the Akhalia area some latrines have particular using pattern, specially open and shifting latrine do not have any particular well wall. For this, female persons of this area use these type latrines in the early morning or in the late evening, but at night they always try to avoid it. Because, that type of latrines do not have any lighting system and they think that latrine area is more risky for them (in previous, they have better experience).

9.1.3 Latrine Related Behavior

Migrated people behave among latrine using in difficulty in their particular area. When they feel pressure for their latrine they always go to the latrine immediately and at that time they always ensure their position in the latrine. Other wise another person will acquire this place. For this strong competition, they do not so much conscious about other situation, such as use sandle in the latrine time. Most of the migrated person do not use sandle in the latrine time. Only 17.5% of migrated people regular use sandle in their latrine time. 37.5% some time use sandle remaining persons of people never use sandle in their latrine time. In Akhalia area, most of the children of migrated people do not use sandle in the latrine time, they always go to the latrine in bear foot. But some parents of migrants children have some specific awareness about their latrine environment, most of the time they try to care their children among latrine related behavior. In following table shows the different pattern sandle in latrine time.
Table: Different pattern of sandle using

Sandle use in differently    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent       
Regular    7    17.5    17.5      
Sometime    15    37.5    55.0      
Not even    18    45.0    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       
Source: Research Work, Course No.- ANP 400, 2001- 2002.

Migrated people think that latrine place not so good, particularly in health purpose, it is a bad place and they have particular ritual about latrine using. Some migrated people put dirty clothes, where they go to the latrine and after latrine, they keep it for other latrine time. Most of the time they do not wash these clothes in regularly.

9.2: Soap use and Awareness about Health

BRAC and ASHA’s workers regular visit in those  areas of migrated people. Mostly they deal with them about their particular credit program, but some time they deal with migrated people for their health awareness. Other NGO’s workers also visit some time in these areas and provide them some vaccine and other consciousness thinking about their health. From those people, they get some awareness some thing about their health, they think that soap is a most important thing for their health. Particularly after latrine  use it is more important, for health. Most of the migrates knows that type health awareness men, but in this area, there are few people who use soap in this area, there are few people use soap after using latrine and in their bathing time. This situation focuses in the below table, most of the migrated people do not use soap in regularly after they used their latrine.

Table: Different pattern of soap use in after latrine

Soap use in differently    Frequency    Percent    Valid Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Regular    5    12.5    12.5    12.5      
Sometime    18    45.0    45.0    57.5      
Not even    17    42.5    42.5    100.0      
Total    40    100.0    100.0       
Source: Research Work, Course No. ANP 400, 2001- 2002.

After latrine most of the migrated people wash their hand with water, some time they use soap. Most of the time they use clay, muddy or ash for wash their hand. Sometime migrated people use soap at their bathing, but it is not regular seen. Most of the people use soap in their bathing, when they fell that their body is so dirty for daily work. The ratio of soap using is more in female person than male person in this area.

9.3 Hand Use in Different Purposes

People have various purposes among their hand uses. In   taking food they use their hand in different way.  Such as, female person use their hand when they prepare their family’s food. They wash food instrument, cooking instrument, cut and arrange raw food item by using hand. Most of the female person use their bear hand when the boil water in pot or any other hot instrument to keep out  from burner/cooker. Female person use their in other different purposes, which are listed in below:
1) To serve food within other family member
2) To prepare wood or other burning things
3) To feed their baby
4) To wash cooking or other instrument
5) To nursing other family members
6) To take meal
7) To wash clothes
8) To use after latrine
9) To wash their body as well as face, mouth, nose and other part of their body. 
10) They use their hand for ritual activities, such as at the time of Aju.
11) To make an fire in any cooker
12) To scabies any other part of body
13) They use their hand in their work place
14) To wash their body or take bath
15) Use hand for clearing their hand.
16) They use their hand for controlling their children.
17) They use their hand for clearing their houses or other place of their houses.
18) They use their hand to express any other symbol to other people.
That is the common using pattern of hand of female person of migrated people. Most of the male persons have some type of using pattern, but when they stay out of their house they use their hand in differently.

9.4 Drainage System

In the Akhalia area, there are two main drains, both drains have been carry and covered half part area of this city and those are controlled by municipal corporation of Sylhet city. Most of the rich people’s houses  have well planed, they have link with main drain by creating small drain. But most of the migrated people live in poor settlement sectors, their houses have no well drainage system. On the other hand, some migrated families stay in thatplaces where the owner of their houses never can stay there. Most of the time those owner people live in abroad (London). They buy this plote for their future interest. For this, they do not think about this area.
In the Akhalia area, all of the migrated people pay their house rent to other person (they identify them as caretaker). They are not directly related to their owner of their houses,  some time those caretakers are relatives of the owner of the houses. Those  caretaker people, who have no interest about the drainage system of their careing area, where migrated people live.
In the three local areas of migrated people they have no particular drain. In the rainy season rain water is stored in their house area. Then they try to remove this water by cutting soil and create a path for removing water. Most of the time this water is mixed with human excreta, where open or shifting latrine is more focused. In the coloni No-1, people have an advantage for their geographical location, they settle in high land area. For this, after rain there water flow to the down ward. But in the other place of migrated area, such as Zugi para and Noya para, most of the migrated settlement were in low land area. In both of these areas where have no proper drainage system. In the rainy season their situation become very miserable.

9.5: Solid Waste Disposal

In their daily life , migrated people amass more waste. In the Akhalia area they have no particular place for disposed their daily waste. Most of the time they fall it near their house or any other hallow side. Zugi para and Noya para have different particular places for waste disposal. But these places are not well planed, near waste disposal place there are some migrants houses. When these waste is purified it spread bad smell in the arrounding area. Migrated people know that this bad smell is more harmful for their health, but they have nothing to do for this. Some time they complain to their owner of house or caretaker. But they do not find fruitful activities from them. For this, when this situation become more suffering to them, they arrange own self to clear this waste or chop soil in over this waste place. In the coloni No-1, there is a particular place, people through their waste in near hilly side of their houses. At that situation, they have an advantage position for their particular settlement. But that type of waste disposal make some disadvantages for them.  (they think), after some days those abundant waste was purified, then its spread bad smell in their locality.

9.6 Food Taking Behavior

Migrated people have different pattern of food taking behaviour. These situations are more influenced by their occupational condition. Migrated rickshaw puller one time take meal in their own house at night. In the Akhalia area most of the single migrants arrange their daily meal with other single migrants. There have some different pattern some rickshaw pattern, those are in Noya para area, they take their meal in their own house at the two time as morning and night. When they leave their house for rickshaw pulling they try to complete their morning meal (not breakfast). At that time they take rice with a single vegetable carry,  some rickshaw puller have in the Akhali area those do not like to take food in morning time, they always try to complete their meal by some of this food. Generally, in the three local area of migrated people, they take their meal in three time by rice. In breakfast, with rice they take some available vegetable curry, some take ruti with potato fry (vegetable) at the morning time. In the lance (midday meal) they take rice with single carry which is prepared by fish. Particularly in a single day or a week they take meat. But that situation is not same in all level of migrants. Mostly those single migrants have arranged match system in their meal schedule, they take a schedule meal system in their daily life.
Most of the rickshaw puller in the Akhalia area, they take their lance and other partial thin food take in outside their house. At that time they use road side tea stall, which have chief price. This time they do not follow well hygiene practices. With little water they wash their hand and mouth before taking their meal. But most of the time they only wash their hand then take meal.
Other occupational person, in the Akhalia area  take their meal in differently. Specially the female migrants those work in different construction place. They carry their midday meal and take their meal by washing their hand and mouth (if possible). Most of the time they do not find enough time for taking their midday meal. So, they try to quickly complete their meal. House wife and maid servant take their daily meal in their house. House wife take their meal after other family members take there meal and maid servant take their meal with abandoned food, which they get from their work place. Children of migrants take their meal in their house, sometime they take other food from near shop or hawker. In the Akhalia area there are some migrant families, who do not take meal in three time. Mostly they take two time, at morning and night. At midday they take some thin food such as biscuit, mori, chira or other thin food.

9.7 Domestic and personal Hygienic

As domestically, migrated people practice some cleanliness activities. In  most of the migrant family, particularly female person of a household regular clean their floor. In the Akhalia area majority migrants house floor are constructed by soil (muddy floor) When they wash their floor they use abandoned cloth soak with water. But in the single migrants those are not regular wash their floor in regularly. After ten or fifteen days they wash their house. Migrant family wash their regular using clothes after a week. But   female person of those families work in outside of their house they do not practice that type of attitude. Most of the single male migrants wash their clothes after long time using. But single female migrants have different situation. Most of them wash there daily use clothes in regularly.
In the Akhalia area, most of the male migrants hot conscious about their personal cleanliness. They do not cut their nail in regularly and do not shave in regularly. Most of the time they shave their beard after long time. Migrants people take bath in regularly, but in winter season they take bath after one or two days. Because most of them take bath in evening or night, when they come back from their work, so winter water is more cold for them and more thought for bathing. 

9.8: Sanitation Related Diseases of poor Migrated People

In the Akhalia area, migrated people affected by different type of health problems, Most of the diseases of them are closely related with their low-level sanitation behavior specially in water related. In last one year, poor migrants are effect by two major diseases, which are identify as water boon and water wash diseases such as water born disease4s is jaundice and water wash disease is diarrhea. In the Akhalia area there are a single person found within every 12, who are affect by jaundice or diarrhea. In the dry seasons of this area, most of the people effected by both of this diseases. In the Akhalia area, people are affected by other some diseases, including as cholera, dysentery, Pell attack etc. Those are also sanitation related discuses.
In the Akhalia area, most of the people get treatment for these diseases from folk healer. Akhalia area has a folk healer, who provides pani para for various diseases. Some time in crucial moment, they go to the Ousmani Medical Collage hospital their better treatment.

Migration, Adaptation and Aftermath: The Epidemiological outcome of Diarrhea

“we have no power to talk in front of the rich, like the chairman. We are afraid of them,. We are always looked down upon and scolded. So we never know what they are writing and doing” - A Landless Labor in Bangladesh (BRAC, 1949, P-20). This is the common scenery of poor people in all of the area of Bangladesh. In the Akhalia area none of migrated people were poor in their previous home place. Various factors create them as poor. Some time they effected by natural disaster and sometime they effected by village politics. For this effected situation, they become poor and they have to leave their home place. Most of the time they migrated to the city area. In the city area they have to face with some crucial factors too. Belonging in a particular group as poor category, most of the time, they do not adapt in successfully with particular urban criteria. Within this situation, they have to face numeric problem including as serious health diseases.

8.1 Poor Migrants in Urban Ecology

Akhalia area is a newly form urban area in Sylhet City. Most of the city criteria have been found in this particular area. There has some residential area. Where most of the people carry upper level statuses and most of them come from different part of this country. Before settling here most of them are unknown with one another. But when they come into this area they have to interact with other people in terms of the fulfill of their life living practices. On the other hand Sylhet city have some particular criteria, which are not commonly found in other city of this country, such as local people always treat other people as outsider. Most of the time they does not consider them as a country man or as well as own people. For this when they interact with ‘other’ people, they always maintain their different statuses.
    In the Akhalia area, poor migrated people, here as a new corner, they does not know the particular city criteria, their assumptions are constructed by sharing other migrants’ experience. When they first come into this city, they have to face immediate two problems as manage their settlement area and manage a work for their earning. Different factors have been includes as causes of migration. In their previous home place they always victimize by richer class of their village (matbar). that situation they are not only sufferer  from economically but they suffer in different social or cultural perspectives. In the city area, they also deprive by other city people in new different shape. As poor migrants in the city area they have five basic criteria such as powerlessness, isolation, poverty, physical weakness and vulnerability. Those criteria always deprive them and these are interrelated with each other. For this they can not overcome this situation. These interlinked deprivation trap would be focuses in following figure.
                                                  1. Power Less ness

2. Isolation                            5. Vulnerability

    3. Poverty                            4. Physical Weakness

Figure: The deprivation trap

In the Akhalia area poor migrated people always powerless, for their isolation, poverty physical weakness and vulnerability. They become powerless. Above figure shows that all of the attributes link with other attributes. Such as migrated poor has a basic criteria as poverty. Poverty contributes to physical weakness through lack of food, small bodies, malnutrition, low sanitation and inability to reach or pay for health services; to isolation because of the inability to pay of the cost of schooling or to buy a radio; to vulnerability through lack of assets to pay large expenses or to meet contingencies; and to powerless because lack of wealth goes with low status: the poor have no voice. (Champers, R.: 1985).
Within this situation, poor people have been depriving all level of the position of urban society.

8.2 Urban Adaptation and Health Problem

As poor people of newly setting urban area, they have to face some problems that are more crucial. In urban area, migrated people adapt with two particular environment such as natural environment and cultural environment. Within the natural environment Akhalia area is a totally different from migrants’ previous home place. In the Akhalia area, migrated people come from different past of Bangladesh. These different area has different pattern of natural environment such as their climate, geographical pattern, different pattern of rainy season, hot-cold differentiation etc. People live in their previous home place adapt with these different ecological criteria. And different part of Bangladesh has different pattern of cultural background such as different food habit, different occupation, different ritual management, different socio-cultural organization, different water collection pattern, different water using pattern, different latrine related behavior etc. Within these different background positions, migrated people adapt with another different urban environment. As for their particular poor criteria, adaptation process is more difficult situation for them. In below figure represent this particular adaptation situation of migrants in Akhalia area.

                                        Previous Natural and cultural    
                                   Environment (Migrants background)
                                                             2.  Migration                                                                                                       


     6. Migrants

Figure: Migrants adaptation Process in Urban area.

In above figure focuses the five dimension of poor migrants’ adaptation process in a particular urban area. Such as,
1. Migrated people have particular socio-economical and cultural background, which are more interrelated with their specific natural environment of their home place.
2. Within those particular background, rural people migrated to urban area, where has two specific urban environments, which are natural and cultural environment.
3. Natural environment of urban area are interrelated with three specific feature such as its geographical feature, climate and productive nature.
4. Cultural environment of urban area has also some basic criteria, such as its social organization, occupation, food habit, sharing pattern, language and ritual pattern.
5. Both of natural and cultural environment create a total pattern of urban environment.
6. Within this urban environment, poor people have to adapt with this situation. They have to share with both environment and successfully setting in this urban area.

8.3 Unsuccessful Adaptation and Diarrhea

Most of the migrated people of Akhalia area have not successfully adapted in a newly setting urban area. At first, they have to face numeric pattern of cultural and natural environmental factors. Geographically, Sylhet city is not same as other area of Bangladesh and its natural climate and productive criteria are more different from other part of this country. In the winter season, cold is more painful at night and in rainy season rain will come without any specific weather attitude. Land pattern of surrounding part of the Sylhet district have not so productive character. Majority needed goods (such as rice, vegetable) are come from different districts of this country. Culturally, Sylhet region is more different then other part of Bangladesh. Most of the local people talk with other people with using shylheti language. Newcomers in this city area have faced more problems to understand this language at first time. There cultural behavior is more different then other area. Such as migrated people fully depend on outsider shop or market for their daily food preparing. However, In the Sylhet city most of the local shops open after 9.00 or 9.30 pm. For this reasons, most of the poor migrants fail to adapt in successfully with in city area. As a result, they have to suffer in some health problem.
On the other hand, as a poor migrants, they do not arranged their settlement in a well planed place, their housing condition, surrounding area of their houses, their water supply situation are not well as upper level people in urban area. For this poor supporting of life-living entities of migrant people, most of the time they becoming ill and attract by different diseases, such as diarrhea, cholera, jaundice, dysentery, spell attack and other diseases. Most of these diseases are strongly related with their poor sanitation behavior. In below, discuss the different epidemical causes of diarrhea of poor migrated people in Akhalia area.
Diarrhea is a sanitation related discuses, water and sanitation behavior pattern of Akhalia area already discuss in previous two chapters. However, in specifically diarrhea has some epidemiological factors in this area. Such as:
1) Occupation: Occupation is more relate to spread diarrhea in this area. Most to the poor migrants are engaged in the low level working condition. Such as day laborer, rickshaw puller, maidservant etc. For those working status they work in different places and in their work time, they take meal and minimize their thirst from various places. Most of the time they take their meal and drink desire water from low sanitary tea-stale in near about road side.

2) Income: As poor people, their income is so poor. By this poor income they cannot buy fresh vegetable, fresh fish or any other fresh goods for their daily food supplies. Most of the time they buy late vegetable or fish, after long time stay in the market those goods price is more cheaply than early market time.

3) Limited tube well: In the three local migrated area, there are only 14 tube well and share its by 355 population. This information focuses that the actual scenery tube well water acquired by migrated people. For this situation most of the migrated people used ponds or other sources of water from different place of that area.

4) Limited Latrine: In the Akhalia area there are about 70% people have no proper sanitary latrine. Most of them used low level sanitary latrine or unhealthy latrine. Which are more effected to spread diarrhea. On the other hand, about 90% of migrated people share a single latrine by 10 or more then 10 household. This situation also more effect to spread diarrhea germs.

5) Latrine Related Behavior: In the Akhalia area people use latrine in unhealthy situations. Most of the time they go to the latrine in bear foot. Only 12.5% of people used soap after using latrine, remaining 87.5% of migrated people do not used soap after using their latrine in regularly. That type latrine related attitude more harmful for diarrhea.

6) Winter and Summer Period: In the winter and summer season water layer of tube well has been more downward, then shallow hand pump tube well can not pumping for tube well water. At that situation, people used ponds water for their every water desire. On the other hand, this time water quality of ponds is very miserable and drinking this water is more harmful for health.

7) Personal Hygiene: In the Akhalia area most of the migrated people do not cut their nail in regularly, they do not regular wash their daily using cloth and they not regular follow the particular health hygiene. For this type personal hygiene they always attack by various diseases as like diarrhea.
In above factors are closely related with the main causes of diarrhea. In the Akhalia area, those factors of poor migrants behaviors are mostly spread diarrhea germs in this area. All of those factors are as ‘risk factors’ for diarrhea in terms of its epidemiological context and at that stage, it is also analytically proved.  


City populated not only by the growth of human fertility but also by the increasing pattern of migration. In the Sylhet city most of the migrated people come from the different village of Bangladesh, and most of them are poor in terms of their socio-economic conditions. This study ‘water and sanitation behavior among poor migrated people in urban area’ is conducted of those people who are lost their land or other living entities in their previous home place by some natural or social causes. In the Akhalia area, not all of the migrant poor in their previous home place. There are some people those had cultivate land in their previous home place, but they migrated here for various causes. Some of the migrated people leave their home for the causes of some push factors and some of migrants to migrate in the city area impress by city facilities.
Most of the poor people migrated with the help of their nearest relatives or locally known people. At this migration process, most of the single female migrants victimize by their relatives. In the Akhalia area, there are some people those have strong relation with their previous home place. Regularly, after two or three months they visit to their village area. Most of that type people provide economical support to their nearest relatives, who are live in their village area.
In their previous home place, migrated people had different pattern of life style. They play different type of occupation and had different type of income sources in their previous village area. Different migrated people come from different part of Bangladesh. For this at the time of their migration, they carry different pattern of socio-cultural background. In their village area, they have different pattern of sanitation behavior, various sources of water and various purpose they use it. These water sources and its using pattern are more different then city area of migrated people.
In the Akhalia area, without rickshaw puller, all of the migrated people have to change their previous occupational statuses for their migration in the city area. They form their newly setting life style in the city area by sharing with some, particular city criteria. In the city area, most of the migrated family are conjugal family, but in their previous home place most of them belong in the joint family and share within a single chula, There have some case that after migration people change their marital status. In the city area, migrated people engaged with some institution, which are provide them some formal or informal facilities.
Migrated people have different type of water using pattern. In order to adjust with a newly form of life style, poor migrated people have to face some crucial water related factors in this area, but it is a most important living entity for them. For this, they create a new formation of social relation in terms of the collection of their sufficient water. They have also some different water-using pattern, such as they consume water, wash their cooking or other instrument by water and as poor people they use water for cooling their body and they bath by water. They also used water for different ritual management and they have some beliefs among water using.

In this study sanitation is a more important factor, in the Akhalia area poor people have different pattern of sanitation related behavior. They have different type of latrine and they have different latrine –using pattern. Most of the poor migrants used low qualities latrine and they are not so conscious about latrine related diseases. Most of the time they go to the latrine in bear foot and most of the time, they do not maintain latrine related hygiene. For this reasons they always affected by various latrine related diseases. 

To improve their present situation it is need to take quickly some steps. For this purposes here proposes some recommendation, which will be more effective to improve migrant’s situation in this city area.

1. At first need to arrange specific settlement area for migrants in the city area and this settlement place should planned in order to concentrate to fulfill well health facilities, such as  well housing patter, well drainage system, sanitary latrine facilities etc.

2. Poor migrated people come to the city area as newcomer, to use this weakness point some bad urbanities victimizes them and most of the time they are helpless at that situation in the urban areas. To take-up this situation, local administrator should be more conscious about this situation.

3. Different migrated people have different socio-cultural background, for these reasons most of the time they have to face cultural shock at first time in the city area, to minimize this situation need to build up the general consciousness about the city life.

4. Most of the diseases of poor migrant are area water related and they could not manage their sufficient water buy their own selves. For this, every poor migrated area need to provide at least three tube well and two deep hand-pump tube well (TARA Pump).

5. It is Need to provide consciousness program about primary health care practices. For this program it is need to support from some Go and NGO Organization. Government should be take consciousness program in national media and some NGO’s have big field level worker, it is easier to them to take this program.

6. Poor migrants have some particular latrine related behavior, most of the time those behaviors more harmful for their health. To control this situation, it is needed to take a participatory program and by this program people should be learn how a latrine would be share with other household members. Moreover, after latrine using how can they wash their hand, lag and mouth.

7. Migrated people have some common discuses, to minimize these situations; it is need to provide them some primary level training, such as what would be done in time of the diarrhea spread ness.


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