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Chapter: Two


Sylhet city is situated in the northeastern part of Bangladesh. Now a day, Sylhet is form as a newly divisional head quarter and Sylhet city has been becoming as Municipal Corporation like any other municipal corporation of Bangladesh. Sylhet region has a basic criteria by its immigrant situation, most of the family has link with England by immigration of one or more members of this family. For these reasons there has more work places, which encourage poor village people to migrate this area, by conducting this research, Sylhet city is considering as its field, but in terms of the basic criteria of anthropology is a micro level study, Babari area of Sylhet city selected of this research field.

General criteria of migrated people

Migrants have different feature in this area. They have different statuses such as occupation, different aged, different sexes, and different cultural and ecological background. Within these situations, different migrated people carry different feature in terms of their different statues.

Occupation of Migrated people

In the Bagbari area migrated people have different pattern of occupation. There are two different situations are seen in terms of different sex group of migrated people in Bagbari area. The major occupations of male migrants are Rickshaw pullers, day laborer, driver, small businessman etc. most of male respondents are rickshaw puller, some are day laborer, some of them are driver, some are low service holder and some are relate with different occupations. On the other hand, some of female respondents are maid servant, some are day laborer, some are house wife, and some are low level service holder and remanding of them are related to other works. In the below tables and chart show these ratio of male and female occupation in this area.

Population and household pattern:

There are about 85 households and about 56 single migrants in this area. In the Bagbari area, most of this migrated house leader is male (about 50 household) and 35-house hold leader are female, they have no adult male person (who can work). Within the single migrated people there are about 35 of them are female. Most of the single migrated people live in a house by sharing. On an average 2 to 4 are live in a single room. These situations are lower in terms of female context; most of the female live in a room as individually.


Migrated people have different pattern of educational level. Those migrated people have education; they acquired this in their previous home place. But children of migrated family have been continuing their education in the city area. There are only 30 families, they enroll their children in the school, and only 19 families are continuing their children’s education in this area. But most of the migrated family’s enrolled children dropout without completing their five years education (Primary level). Children enrollments are more relate to the parents education. But there are only 30 families, whose one of parents (mother or father) has previous education up-to high school level. There are only two people founded who had gone to the college in their previous home place.

Income and expenditure of migrated people

The study is conducted as population, those are migrated from village area and those people have basic criteria for this research as poor. In this study, poor people are not only defining by economically but also emphasizes on their social position and cultural background in their own society. Income and expenditure of this group of people are more different by other group of people in this area. In the Bagbari area, Upper level income is 5000 Tk. to 6500 Tk. per month and lower level income is 1200 Tk per month. These family have upper level income. But most of the families of upper level income have two or more income holder and those families have large family member. In the Bagbari area, there are some family or single migrated people have 2500 taka or less than 2500 taka income by per month, these are mostly single migrated people and remaining of people are in the middle level income holder. In the below table shown the different income group of migrated people in Bagbari area.

Most of the incomes of all level income holders are expend their income in maintaining their daily consuming needs and paying their house rent. In the Bagbari area there are more common expending sectors are food, house rent, treatment, clothing, and education, cash sending to home place. In the Bagbari area, single male migrants have dependency to maintain their previous family needs. Majority part of their income they send for their family member who lives in their village area.
The migrated people of this area, nobody can fulfill their family needs by their current income. But they have no extra source of income to fulfill their need successfully.

The migrated people spend most of their income in their food and accommodation purposes, most of them are belong in lower level income and most of them are single male migrants, though they have low food and accommodation cost but they have to maintain their previous family needs.

Working condition

Different migrant have different working condition in their occupation place, most of the rickshaw puller have no own rickshaw, they occupy rickshaw by paying rent. For ten hour, they pay 35 Tk. per day to owner of the rickshaw. There are two shift working situation in the rickshaw pulling. Most of the rickshaw puller in Bagbari area is pulling rickshaw one shit in a day. Day laborer have no permanent works, they do not find work in regularly, most of the time they work in construction sectors of this city area. In this area, migrated people are mostly work in University construction sectors; they work in this sector nine hour (8 am to 5 pm) in a day. Maidservant of female migrants have different pattern of work-time in terms of their working place.

In the Bagbari area, there are more university student match and teacher houses, most of the female migrants are work in this sector for cooking, washing and other home activities. They have two or three shifts working time such as to prepare breakfast in the morning, lunch in the mid day and supper in the night. They go to the work place as two shifts, morning and evening shifts. In the morning shifts they completed breakfast and lunch and in the evening shift complete supper. Most of the female migrants prefer that work than other family’s work. In these work they find more time and more freedom in their work place.

Marital Status

Different migrated people have different pattern of marital status. This different situation is mostly seen in the marital perspectives of single migrated people. Those single migrants age 18-22, most of them are unmarried above 22 age singles male migrants have marital status in the in previous home place. These aged group people have two-type situation as married (those have partner in their previous home place) and divorced (those have not any partner). In the Bagbari area all of female single migrants had married in their previous home place but not all of them are divorced or separate.
Marital situation of family migrants of Bagbari area, they are married, but there have some differentiation. Newly married family of this area has previous marital experience. Both spouse are married before present marriage. There are 13 family that the leader of household (male) have another family in the in previous house place. In the Zogi Para area, two single migrants married in this area within one year.

Family pattern:

It is already mentioned that, most of the male single migrant’s family live in their rural area. Majority of them belonging in joint family pattern in their village area. Single female migrants have no family partner in the city area; most of the migrated families of this area are nuclear in their nature. There are only 2 family which are joint family’ in their nature, these family which are joint family have father, mother uncle, aunty and their children. One of the joint has their grand father who lives with commonly in this city area.
There are some families, which have linkage with their previous village family. In this situation, they count as both side family members, same time they are the member of their previous family and their city family. These families are count in this study as extended family.

Religious background and the position of migrated people:

Migrated people have different religious background, majority of migrated people come from Muslim religion and they have different pattern in area to area. All of them are Muslim Sunni, but they have particular ideology in terms of their particular follower. In their previous home society, their religious position depend on family background and their economic position in their society. Most of Muslim migrated people do not practices their religious activities in regularly. But on Friday as Juma day they always go to the mosque for Juma prayer. Most of the areas’ people did not face any discrimination in mosque in the time of prayer, but some cases shows that there has different position for different group of people. Majority Muslim migrated did not participate in any activities of religion, they were absent in these occasion. In the Bagbari area their are some other religious migrated people, most of them Hindu. All of the Hindu migrated people come from lower class position of their society.

Social position of migrated people:

In their village area, migrated people were belonging in a particular social position. To being in a particular society they always contact with other people. This position was create by achieve or ascribe. Those people have strong economical position and strong family background they have upper level position. All of the area of Bangladesh, there are mostly seen the same situation.   

In the Bagbari area, migrated people have three level of social position. These are upper level, middle level and lower level. Most of the migrated people of Bagbari area come from lower level social position. In their previous home place, lower level people have not participation in any social activities. In the following table and chart shows the different position of social level.

Economical Background

In the Bagbari area, migrated people have different background of economic position. Most of the migrated people were farmer in their previous home place, but all of them had no cultivable land in their village. They work in others peoples’ land, sometime they sell their labor and sometime they produce by sharing. All of the areas of Bangladesh have no equal land value. In the low land area of Bangladesh, most of the land affected by flood, the people of these area produce in their land in one time of a year. Migrated people of these areas had land but not satisfaction from their output. Migrated people have different type occupation in their previous home place, such as farmer, rickshaw puller, small businessman, day laborer etc. majority migrated people have farming background, some of migrated people was small businessman.

Chapter: Three

Previous Home Place of Migrated

Migrated people of Bagbari area come from different area of Bangladesh. Migrated people come from Rajshahi division most of the migrated people come from Rangpur, Bogra, Naogoan, Gaibanda and Rajshahi; and in Barisal division majority migrated people are come from Barishal, Jhalakathi and Bhola district. In the Bagbari area majority migrated people come from different district of Barishal division and come from Rajshahi division and majority of them Rangpur district. 

Causes of Migration

Migrated people have various causes for their migration in city area. They leave their home place and migrated in an unknown area is more painful to them. In terms world geographical pattern, Bangladesh is in vary crucial place, most of the destroyed natural climates are seen in different part of this country. In every year, majority parts of Bangladesh are affected by flood. In recent time Bangladesh has painful experience by flood. On the other hand, different parts of Bangladesh have different type of natural disaster, such as river erosion, drought, cyclone etc. All of these disasters affect in the life living entities of poor people in the village area. On the other hand, some migrated people have high ambitious about their life, they try to change lifestyle by changing their home place and occupation. Within the situations two factors selected as the causes of migration in this area, these are ‘push factor’ and ‘pull factor’. Majority people of Bagbari area migrated by push factors and rest of them for pull factors.  In following table shown, the ratio of the causes of push and pull factors in migration.

Push factors

Push factors is connected with migration include floods and natural disaster, erosion, growing landlessness, exploitation by the rural elites and money lenders, family conflicts and other causes. In the Bagbari area, majority push migrants have main causes of economic hardship ness in their previous home place. Increasing population and other factors make more impact to create this situation. In the village area of migrated people, they had no works. As poor people, they couldn’t live without work by daily work in order to continue their daily meal and fulfill other needs of their family. For these reason they always tried to leave their home place and migrated in the city area. Natural disasters also create this situation, by floods, river erosion and other disasters they lost their land and other living entities. In some cases it is shown that the family conflict and village politics also create pressure to migrants to lave their home place. In the below table and chart shown the scenery of different push factors of migration in the Bagbari area.

Pull factors

The idea is widespread that city provides paths to wealth. Although the case of success always seem exaggerated in the minds of potential rural migrants, cities with their relatives’ concentration of wealth evidence that prosperity in cities is at least possible. The dream of success despite the frequent reality of failure is the heart of most decision to migrants. In the Bagbari area some migrants had that type reality. Majority pull migrants came to the city by attraction of city life. They think that city is a more interesting and successive area, where all people are happy; there has no conflict as village politics. Some migrants come for the better working facilities. In previous time they thought that city had more working facilities and when he comes to the city he get a work which has more facilities and economic opportunities than his village work.
Gender Factors of Migration:

Gender is a crucial factor of city ward migration. In the Bagbari area there many female migrants. All of them had marital status, but majority of them now in divorced or separated from their husband. Most of the divorced female migrants had more suffering experience in their previous home place. All of them had torched experience by their husband or other persons of her husband’s family. They have come hare with their nearest relatives or other relatives. All that time they also cheated by their relatives; some female had sexual torturous experience by other male persons of her locality. On the other hand, female migrants had interest to migrate city area, they thought that in the city area, nobody could identify her and she could choose any type of works. In the village area, they had more difficulties to work in out side their house; through they had needed in terms of their economic condition. There had some female migrants who are migrate with their husbands. In the Bagbari area there are female migrants who had suffering experience when she migrated in the city area, after few month her husband leave her (not divorce) and further not meet with her. At that time she had no works, she did not know the city situation as well as city life. She had to face more crucial moments at this situation, at last she try to go back to home place, that time she discuss with a single female migrants and propose her for not backing she manage a work for her as maid servant. Then she stays hare since two years. 

The Process of Migration

In the Sylhet city most of the migrated people come here after the declaration of Sylhet as a ‘division’. After declaration, Sylhet city will be Municipal Corporation and there have create new area of works for poor people. Simultaneously at that time new institutions have been form in this area, such as SUST. (Shahjalal University of Science and Technology). Those institutions take various type constructional projects, which have need more daily working people to work as day laborer. On the other hand, Sylhet has a different type feature than other area of Bangladesh; most of the rickshaw puller and low-level worker Such as day laborer came from different districts of this country. Majority previous migrated people of this area always encourage their poor relatives or friends to come to the Sylhet city and they assurance them they would be acquire woks in this area. In the Sylhet city, most of the poor migrated people come here with the help of their relatives and known persons of their locality. Within this process of migration, there have two different migrants such as individual migrants and family migrants. Individual migrants have two different pattern, single male migrants and single female migrants. Family migrants have also two different patterns, some of the family came hare with their children and some of them come with no children.

In the Sylhet city, male people come hare with the help of their relatives and other known person of their locality. Some of the single male individual comes hare by individually. Female migrants come here with nearest relatives and under-nearest relatives such as her sister’s brother-in-low. Family always migrated here with the help of their nearest relatives. In the below table shown the different pattern of relatives those help the migrated people to migrated in this city.

In the Bagbari area, most of the migrants came here within two years. There have some migrants those stay in this area above two years.

Relationship with Home Place

Migrated people have various causes to leave their home place, but after their setting in the city area, they try to maintain their relationships with their relatives who live in their previous village. They visit their home place as frequently and simultaneously express welcome their relatives to visit their city area. Data shows that those migrated belong in their previous home place as jointly the ratio of relation maintaining have more then other people. In terms of different pattern of migration, individual male migrants regular maintain their relation with their home place. They visit their home place within two months, but that type of scenery have not seen in terms of the situation of single female migrants. Within two years, they have no relation with their village. Most of the family migrants have relation with their village people but they visit their village by long gap, only they visit their village in any occasional time such as marriage ceremony of their nearest relative. In the following table shows the relation-maintaining pattern of different migrated people with their previous home place.

On average, all of the migrated people of Bagbari area comes from different parts of Bangladesh. They have different causes for their migration, and they have different interest to migrate in the city area. Migrated people have different social and gender position, they have various experience in terms of the situation of their migration. In the Bagbari area poor migrated people migrated by different processes and linkage with the other people of them are not same, they have different situation within the maintaining relationship with their village relatives.

Chapter: Four
Health care practices

Three sectors model

    In that study Kleinman model has been taken an analytical tool. So, Kleinman model among the migrated people of Bagbari has been applied. Among the migrated people of Bagbari one can identity three overlapping and inter connected sector of health care;

         The popular sector,
         The folk sector,
         The professional sector.

Each sector has its own way of explaining and treating ill-health, defining who the healer is and who is the patient and specifying how healer and patient should interact in their therapeutic encounter.
The popular sector:

 It includes all therapeutic options that people utilize without any payment and without consulting either folk healer or medical practitioner; advice or treatment given by a relative friend neither; healing and mutual one activities in a church, self help group or consultation with anther lay person who has special experience of a particular disorder. C; here most ill-health is recognized and then treated. It is the real site of primary health care in migrated people of Bagbari. In the migrated people main provider of health care are women, usually mothers or grandmothers, who diagnose most common illnesses and treat them with the materials at hand. A woman who has had several pregnancies for example can give informal advice to a newly pregnant younger woman, telling her what symptom to expect and how to deal with them. Most health care among the migrated people of Bagbari in this sector place between people already linked to one anther by ties of kinship, friendship neighborhood or membership of work or religious organization.

The folk sector: 
They also depend on the folk sector. From ancient period to the present day the migrated people of Bagbari have been using this traditional medicine. There is no side effect of healer medicine. So most of the migrated people use these medicines without any hesitation. The medicine is less cost and easily available, which all classes people. This treatment is more effective for the migrated people. The herbal doctors can early remove bonesetters by using wild tree leaves.

The professional sector:

Nowadays men and women Of Bagbari take allopathic treatment. Though the allopathic treatment is extensive in the community. So they take less expensive traditional herbal and indigenous treatment which they learned from their grand parents and neighbors of the migrated people of Bagbari.  Primarily   they receive their indigenous treatment. In the care of failure they   must go to the Health Complex, go through a skill doctor according to their suggestion and take some medicine from them.
    In the same time they take both the modern and indigenous treatments. But they can’t identify which treatment was effective to recover their diseases and both the treatment exists under same circumstance.
    Financial problem is another vital cause in this regard. Most of them have not sufficient financial ability to fulfill the modern doctor’s demand. As a result they receive to indigenous treatment, which is cheap comparatively.
    Availability is another fundamental criterion to exist indigenous treatment. As the modern doctors live outside the community on the other hand indigenous practitioners are with in village and under their control they come to them for protection to their primary treatment.

4.5 Women health:

4.6 Child health:

Child health is considered throughout the world as the most significant one in health sector. Among the migrated people of Bagbari, children are considered as the encounter in their society. And particularly female children are more encouraged, during illness. They expressed several opinions about child health.

4.7 Older people health:

       The older people are very respectable stage in the life cycle of a person in the community migrated people of Bagbari both old man and women in the family as well as the community are treated with deep regards and respect by the people. Old persons who are unable to go the fields and do hard works are engaged in various household activities. This includes among other looking after poultry birds looking after babies, cooking and they can earn money.
Health care service:
Chapter: Five
Illness, sickness and diseases

illness, sickness and diseases:

The meaning of illness and sickness Were same to the migrated people of  Bagbari. Most of them seen That illness and sickness are the person’s own idea. It is meant that a person might have imagined him Or she becomes sick or ill or in some cases, the person Might have been fit but the neighbors or others family
Members identified him/her is on ill or sick person. So Becoming ill was depended not on the person him or Herself only but on the societies also Believe that when a person was identified with any Unpleasant situation then she/he becomes ill or Sick person.

    On the other hand, the migrated people also believe that diseases may be treated as a malfunction or ill function of body. They also seem that body may be well but it ones mind is not be strengthened, then she/he will be sick. So on the basis of the perception about illness.
illness of a person is infect  embedded in the individual level, sickness is in social level but  it depends on the certification of on expert, who may be institutionally recognized on not but socially acceptable one. So, it can be concluded as Ostergoard, L(1992:111) apparently state that “the concept of diseases is more easily defined than the concept of health”. The above discussion will be salutes to demonstrate the perception of illness, sickness and diseases of the migrated people of Bagbari.


               I have seen that most of the poor and middle statuses are more victimized by various diseases. I saw the most of the people was suffering from various diseases. I have seen all the diseases of all people in general. Diarrhea and other common diseases are mostly seen among the children. Women are suffered from diarrhea diseases particularly dysentery or blood dysentery, skin diseases and cough. The older people are suffered from T.B. diseases particularly Asthma, cough, heart attach.

Major types of diseases:

Diseases in the various seasons:
In Bangladesh, though called there has six seasons, but strict demarcations are not easily found. Migrated people of Bagbari  believes that there has three basic types of seasons can be realized, and these are summer, rainy season, winter.

In the summer season many they suffer from jaundice, malaria, diarrhea, hepatitis-B, TB. They also suffer badly during winter season from cough, skin, diseases, small pox, Asthma, gastric, etc.

Causes of diseases

Environmental factor of diseases causation:

Informant chills all that is external in the agent and the host. There are many environmental in the agent and host.  There are many environmental factors, which may be divided into three parts health and health care:

 a. Physical factors:    
Physical environment includes geographic, geologic and climate. Geographic locations of the society there in its relation in neutral carry or avenues, to human travel influence diseases causation. Soil and climate are other features of geographic location. Climate change frequently and which is a cause of various diseases. Particularly its can be stated that the infants who are not will adapted to this geographical location.

b. Biological factors:   

Biological factors includes such agent i.e. nutritive elements: carbohydrates, proteins, fats are regarded as that physiologic factor i.e. age, pregnancy are considered one the other hand “invading living parasite” is treated as the another factor of illness and diseases causation.

c. Socio-economic factors

Socio-economic factors influence health by indirect and direct means Ostarguard l (1997:111) state that economic, political and cultural conditions etc. I have seen various kinds of diseases among the society over a year. During rainy season and winter they are suffered enough. Smoking, teeth brushing, long nail etc is may be treated as individually risk factor, particularly in the children. But if one can focus more on that then it would be biased and social economical causes may lied beyond that research

Chapter: Six
Food nutrition and health

Food is more than just a source of nutrition. In all human societies it plays many roles, and is deeply embedded in the social, religious and economic aspects of everyday life. For people in these societies it also carries with it a range of symbolic meaning, both expressing and creating the relationship between man and man, between man and his diet and man and the natural environment food, therefore is an essential part of the way that any society organizes itself, and of the way that it views the world that it inhabitants.
The anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss has argued that just as there is no human society which close not have a spoken language , so also is there no human group which does not supply through cooking. In fact, the constant transformation of raw into cooked food is one of the define features of all human societies, a key creation of culture as opposed to nature.
     Anthropologists have further pointed out how cultural groups differ markedly from one another in many of their beliefs and practice related to food. For example, there are wide variations throughout the world   in what substances are regarded as ‘food’ and what are not food stuffs which are eaten in one society or groups are rigorously forbidden in another. There are also variations between culture as to how food is cultivated, harvested, prepared, served and eaten. each culture usually has a set of implicit rules which determine who prepares and serves the food and to whom which individuals or groups eat together, where and on what occasions the consumption of food takes places; the order of activities of dishes within a meal ; and the actual manner of eating the food . All of these stages in food consumption are closely patterned by cultural and are part of the accepted way of life community.


Food is major concern of the mankind starting from the time of conception and extending through the entire life span of individual (Ghai, 1990:36) religious and cultural factors determinate, which are foods, which are not .
The migrated people of  Bagbari take their traditional foods. The main food item is rice. It is taken with fish, meat, vegetables which ever is available. They eat chickens and beef and fish.  


The scientific aspect of nutrition are of interest not only to physiologist and physicians but also to sociologist, economists and the political structure, of the state, because effects of nutrition gap on the development of individual and the community have for reaching socio-economic and political implications (Ghai, 1990:37) nutrients are necessary for growth of the individual and repair of worn out again tissue. Basic constituents for synthesis of digestive juices, enzymes and hormones are derived from food. Health nutritional status is one of the problems in society. They seem that there is no problem for nutrition.
In the society there is a clear relationship between health and income .Because much of the population already weakened by poor nutrition, will suffer from infectious and other communicable disease. These disease are often transmitted with the help of polluted water supplies, poor sanitation and inadequate housing (all of which can be improved by an adequate income).

Daily food taking behavior

Food intake of individuals is influenced by cultural, economic status, food production, etc. Rice is the staple food for the people. These people also like to eat various fruits of which banana, lemon, orange are very common ones. They also eat fish, meat, vegetables which ever is available. They eat chickens and beef and fish.

Chapter: Seven
Water and sanitation system

Bangladesh is a multi-ethnic state, it is not only its so called variation, but there are different cultural pattern in order to its different part of society. People are mobilized their life living practices in their own society within the contact with different ecological factors. Sanitation is one of the factors, which people of different areas contact differently. There water related behavior, food sanitation, drainage system; solid waste disposal and latrine behavior are different in terms of the different part of this country.

Water related behavior

In Rural Area water related behavior reflects within the two sectors, firstly from where people collect their water or what are the sources of water and how people interact with these sources; secondly, how people use water or how they are interacted with water in terms of their different purposes of water using.

Sources of water

In Bagbari area, different Migrated people have different types of experiences in their village about sources of water. It is different from their using purpose, drinking and other purposes of water. On average, in the village area there are four types of water sources in all over the country. These are tube well, ponds, lake and tank (small ponds). Village areas of every Migrated people have ponds and tanks but different part of rural area of Bangladesh have different number of ponds.

Water Use in Different purposes

People use water in various purposes, but people of different area use water in different categories. Migrated people, in their previous home place, use water in differently from their present city life. They had different need in order to use of water in their village. Water has common purpose as consuming, but pattern of water consuming is different in various part of this country. In Bagbari area, there are many migrated people use tube-well water for consuming and remaining part of the people use water for consuming from different sources, such as ponds, canals and tanks. There is no one family who use a tube-well only by their own family. They share tube-well water with other families. They store water in pitchers or like any other storage jars.

In village area people use water for washing their clothes, dishes and any other tools of material culture. Most of the migrated people wash their cloth in ponds that are found in near about their house. Ponds are mostly use in village area for various purposes of washing. Village people prefer to wash their dishes and any other cooking instruments by pond water in terms of the causes of collection possibility of water. They use water from lake and river for their agriculture in irrigation season or any other time at agricultural periods. Since, last five years most of the migrated people (who migrated in that time) have deep tube-well in their village area for their agricultural sectors.

Most of the migrated people take theirs bath by ponds water in their previous home place. But, there are some families in the village area that their home residence are situates near any canal or river, they use water for there bathing from these sources. People of this area also wash their dishes, cooking instruments and other material instrument with this source of water. Village people also use water for bathing their animals by ponds, canals and rivers water, which are closer to them and they also prefer that.
Village people have some special belief about water using. Most of the Muslim migrated people pray in the drinking time. They use water for removing polluted mind and their physical body conducting ‘Aju’ before they say their prayer of any other religious activities.
They use water as purity and pollution factors, none of Muslim village people use water sources at the time of there urinate. They always use water as a purity thing in the natural world. But that situation is not same for all the village people. Children and rough (So-called) people do not maintain this religious rule in regularly.

Water Using Pattern of Poor Migrated People

The ‘use of, water’ have various aspects; in this study have been concern among those variation. Obviously, water is also at the central attention of those who have the asepsis view of sanitation and water related more concern for cleanliness among the migrants is the use of water. Cleanliness refers not only to a physical state, but also to a state of mind. However, water plays a critically important role in all aspect of cleanliness, from physical to spiritual. Let us now consider the various areas of life where is used and the different properties that are attached to it in these different uses.

Water for Human Consumption

Water is a more important thing for every human being to minimize ones thirst of migrants people use water for drinking in the different situation from different sources. The major source of drinking water is tube well, which they share among all of the migrants of their area. In the summer season, when water level decreased in underground, the hands operate shallow tube well fail to pumping water from more underground level. Then most of the migrants use other sources of water for their drinking. At that time, majority people used ponds water from near their ponds, but in summer season, hot weather minimize water level and the surrounding people of this ponds area increase used this sources of water as frequently. So the drinking quality of this ponds water has becoming too much low. Without any other alternative they have to bound use this water. That time they storage water from near of the ponds in different jars and pitchers. In this is some migrated people used ponds water for drinking purposes by boiling. However majority migrants used ponds water by mixing fitkary.
Household leader of migrants people stay all day long outside their house for their occupation. At that time they used outsider water from different places. Migrant’s rickshaw puller moving here and there, for that type occupation, they desire more water. To fulfill their thirsty they go to the near about any tea stat for drink, at that time they does not try to know what are the source of this water. Other occupations have same scenery of them.
Migrants drink water mainly at three time in a day, when they take meal they drink more water, but after meal they drink little more water. On average male migrants drink water is more than female migrants, because more water drinking create more urinates pressure, male people can do this any where but female cannot do this. For this, they always try to drink little water in their work place. Most of the family migrants has glass and maug’ for using drinking or any other liquid.

Water for Washing

Cleanliness is mostly depending on the peoples washing by water. It is a major usable sector of water that is the cleansing of body, tools and different aspect of the material culture. By washing people fell that they are becoming pure from impurity of their body and mind. Migrated people used water for washing as differently. They use water for washing their cloths; most of the migrants used ponds water for washing their cloth. But there has some differentiation, such as those are more costly cloths for them they wash it in the tube well water, because ponds water is not so-clear as tube well water. That type cloths they puts on only any occasion time, some migrants have views that the tube well water have some organ that change their cloths color particularly white color cloths. For this, they always wash the white cloths in the ponds water by searching clearly.

People wash their body in bathing with different types of water. Most of the migrants use ponds water for bathing. They bath in the afternoon when they comeback from their works. In their house, without bathing they feel impurity, so they always try to take bath. But when they come back from work place, they have to need prepare their food for their children or themselves (mostly seen female migrated people), on the other hand that time all people come back from work place, the bathing area becoming busy. In that situation they soak any cloth with water and clear their body in their house.  With this washing pattern they have not satisfy, impurity is not removing from their mind. Mostly, children of migrated people take bath in by ponds. They always prefer that water.

For all washing the migrated people will try to seek out ‘clean’ water, which will be identified by its relative clarity and absences of visible contaminants as opposed to ‘dirty;’ or polluted water which will be murky, middy or containing visible pollutants. Thus a distinction is made between what is it fit for cleansing purposes and what, which is polluted.

Water Use for Cooling

As poor migrated people they are more oppressed in economical level in their own situation. In the summer season, when they come back from their work, they have feel more hotly as physically. They always try to cool their body by anyhow. But for their economical condition they cannot arrange electrical facilities by their own income. They have only one way that they have to do soak their body with water. Most of the migrants do that type attitude in the summer season. On the other hand migrant people use water at that purposes, when any body affected by fever and their body will more hot by affection, they always try to cool their body by using water.


Sanitation as a way of life: ‘It is the quality of living expressed in clean homes, clean neighborhoods, and a clean community. Being a way of life it must come from its people is nourished by knowledge and grows as the obligation and ideal in human relation’ (USA national sanitation foundation). Sanitation has a wide connotation. It relate to the safe disposal of human excreta, waste water and solid waste, water supply, domestic and personal hygiene, food sanitation and housing etc. In the Bagbari area, the behavior of poor migrated people among sanitation is very different in terms of their newly adaptable city area. They come from different background of cultural pattern and different life way. In this city area, their behavior among sanitation is more influenced  by their previous experience.

Latrine Use of Migrated People

Migrated people have different type of latrine related behavior. Particular people have particular pattern of behavior for using latrine and they use different type of latrine in their locality in terms of their own socio-economic position in a particular area.

Different Type of Latrine

Latrine Related Behavior

Migrated people behave among latrine using in difficulty in their particular area. When they feel pressure for their latrine they always go to the latrine immediately and at that time they always ensure their position in the latrine. Other wise another person will acquire this place. For this strong competition, they do not so much conscious about other situation, such as use sandle in the latrine time. Most of the migrated person do not use sandle in the latrine time. Only of them migrated people regular use sandle in their latrine time. Most of them some time use sandle remaining persons of people never use sandle in their latrine time. In Bagbari area, most of the children of migrated people do not use sandle in the latrine time, they always go to the latrine in bear foot. But some parents of migrants children have some specific awareness about their latrine environment, most of the time they try to care their children among latrine related behavior. In following table shows the different pattern sandle in latrine time.

Migrated people think that latrine place not so good, particularly in health purpose, it is a bad place and they have particular ritual about latrine using. Some migrated people put dirty clothes, where they go to the latrine and after latrine, they keep it for other latrine time. Most of the time they do not wash these clothes in regularly.

Chapter: Eight

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