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Chapter One:
1.1        Introduction
1.2        Subject matter of Study
1.3        Objectives of the study
1.4        Logical basis of the study
1.5        Theoretical perspectives
1.6        Literature Review
1.7        Methods and Techniques of the study
1.8        Limitations of the study
1.9        Operational Definition

Chapter Two:    Area of the study
2.1.        Location
2.2.        Historical Background of the study people
2.3.        Logical basis to select the Area
2.4.        Population of the study area
2.5.        Occupation of the villagers
2.6.        Houses of the study area
2.7.        Institutions of the study area
2.8.        Land of the study area
2.9.        Literacy of the study area
2.10.    Classification of the study people

Chapter three
3.1.    Introduction
3.2.    Family and Migration
3.3.    Family Types
3.4.    Causes of the Types
3.5.    Socialization and Migration
3.6.    Maintenance of Family and Migration
3.7.    Conclusion

Chapter Four
4.1    Introduction
4.2    Kinship Network
4.3    Types of Marriage
4.4    Marriage outside the kin
4.4.1    Dowry
4.5    Marriage with in kin
4.5.1    Dowry
4.6    Marriage and Migration
4.7    Conclusion

Chapter five
5.1    Introduction
5.2    Instutions
5.3    Conditions
5.4    Level of Education
5.5    Primary level
5.6    S.S.C. level
5.7    H.S.C. level
5.8    Graduation
5.9    Conclusion

Chapter Six
6.1        Introduction
6.2     Land
6.3     Cultivation
6.4     Business
6.5     Others
6.6     Conclusion

Chapter Seven
7.1     Conclusion

Chapter One
“Migration is an international phenomenon. In modern times it is a major symptom of basic social change. It is increasing rapidly with industrialization and urbanization. For all diverse causes migration is seen to be a major feature of life in the late thirtieth century. In much of the world geographical mobility is a norm rather than exceptions. Some of us move from cities, districts or countries not just once, but several times in our lives, this is for employment, marriage, education or simply of the search for better life. Tragically many others are forced to move by war, persecution, environmental disaster or poverty” (Gardner, 1993).

“Young adults moving between regions in search of employment, middle-aged professionals moving back to the land in their search for a rural retreat, families moving down the road to satisfy changing housing requirements and gypsies and other nomadic peoples for whom mobility is a way of life” (Boyle, 1998).

Migration is mainly two types, internal and international. Both types of migration are active in Bangladesh. In internal migration people move within the country and international migration, people move from one country to another country. People are interested to be migrated for socio-economic, political, natural event etc. Migration is occurred by “pull” and “push” factor. In pull factor people migrate willingly and in push factor they have to be migrated. This migration has a lot of effects to change any society.

In Bangladesh, the people of Sylhet are very much interested to be migrated in U. S. A , U. K and Arabic world. Katy Gardner says that, “in terms of migration to the U. K, Sylhet has unquestionable supremacy of the estimated 200,000 Bangladeshi’s in U. K, over 95% are migration is Sylhet is not however a monopoly, which all thanas share equally. Instead, Biswanath, Maulvibazar, Beanibazar, Golapganj and Nobigonj enjoy the lion’s share of contract with the U. K” (Gardner, 1993).

International migration has profound effects not only on individual’s village, but also nationally. “From 1976 to 1983 the country earned over $2billion from the migrated people” (Haque, 2001). Most Bangladeshi remittance came from Middle-East, Europe and America and this remittance is spent for the development of Bangladesh. So this remittance has an effect on Bangladeshi.

In Sylhet, international migration is very much active. From Sylhet, people migrate to different countries of the world, mainly to Arabic world, Europe and America. They play their role as their qualification and earn a lot of money, especially who migrate in Europe and America. The migrated people spent their money in their migrated place and their village in Bangladesh. Those who spent money in migrated place invest it in business and in Bangladesh they spent it for their family consumption, luxurious life and purchase land and housing. In this study, I try to know the impact of remittance or migration in a village of Sylhet. For this I compare the migrated households with non migrated households.

Every society has some social organization, like family, kinship, marriage, religion. There is also same vital system of a society by which society continues its mobility. There is economic system, education system, and social system, values etc. these system and organization is closely correlated. To know a society one must be study these things and without knowing these, one can not correctly understand a society. In my study I want to know the effects of international migration in a village of Bangladesh. There is a close relation within migration, the social organization, economic system, education and social customs, norms and values, to know the impact of migration; I studied these things and their relations. In the 2nd chapter I will describe the socio-economic condition of the village. In 3rd chapter, I will discuss the   relationship between family and migration. In 4th chapter, I will discuss the impact of migration on kinship and marriage. In 5th chapter, I will discuss the impact of migration on the economy of the village. In 6th chapter, I will discuss the condition of education and impact of migration on it, and in 7th and last chapter I will discuss the theoretical perspective of migration on the village and there relations.

Subject Matter of the Study:
Migration is a common phenomenon in modern society. People had been migrated one place to another from the very beginning of the human civilization. Though causes of migration differ from one person to another, some people want to migrate in a city that is urban migration and some want to out side his native country. People want to gain more skill for gaining more social and financial opportunities. They also want more social security, wealth and status. So they migrate, where life is more comfortable, secured and can earn more money.

By international migration, people can earn more money and can live secured and comfortable. People spend some money in their native land and become engage in some relations. These money and relation can change the local society and make new social relations and change the mentality of the local people. These changes is considered as an effect of international migration. These effects of international migration are the subject matter of this study. To know the effects, I have done a comparative study between the rich and the poor people of a village. For this I have collected data from the villagers about migration, their present condition, social organization and relations. The above discussed issues are the subject matter of this study in general.

Objectives of the study:
This study has been conducted in a village of Bangladesh, where a lot of people became migrated in U.K, U.S.A and Arabic world. These migrated people send money to their village households for the household live. They also invest money in different sector and try to live a comfortable and secured life. This money have changed the life of the village people. So the target of the study is to know the effects of migration in the village. The village has some social organization, economic system, and has a relation between migration and education. To know the effects these things must be know. So I have specified some objectives by which I can understand the effects of migration. These objectives are given below-
To know the roles of migration in family.
To know the relationship between kinship and marriage with migration.
To know the impact of migration on economy.
To know the effects of migration on education sector.

Logical Basis of the study:
Normally geographer studies migrations, but my study is different from geographer as because it is anthropological in nature. And as a human behavior, migration should have the necessity of anthropological study, as because anthropology is a science of human being. This study is also different from the geographer from the side of methodological perspectives.

“In 1963 at a lot of people of Sylhet moved England by “Char-ana-vautur” (one kind of visa), and in 1979 they started to be migrate in Arabic world. They went to UAE for “Hajj” and stayed there for better economic opportunities” (Gardner, 1993). Before these from British period, people of Sylhet started to migrate in England as a laborer of British ship companies. These migrated people earned a lot of money for their county and easily lived a better life. They spend their money in family consumption, luxurious living and saved money for future. Some people also invested money in different sector but not in productive sector. This migration has a great effect on social organization, economy, education sector, and the daily life of the villagers. So the study is important to know the effects of international migration in a society and its changing pattern. Mrs. Katy Gardner (1993) says that the whole Bangladeshi migrant in England 95% is from Sylhet. By this study we can also know, why the people of Sylhet gets more chance to be migrate than the other districts.

Theoretical Perspectives:
In a social science research especially in Anthropology, the research topic would be conceptualized from a philosophical stand point. In this part I will discuss the theoretical perspective of my study.

For migration, Revenstein gave some hypothesis which was published in 6 Geographical Magazines of 1876 and the Journal of the statistical Society in 1885. The major lows are-
The majority of migrants go only a short distance.
Migration proceeds step by step.
Migrants going long distances generally go by preference to one of the great centers of commerce or industry.
Each current of migration produces a compensating counter current.
The natives of towns are less migratory than those of rural areas.
Females are more migratory than males within the kingdom of their birth, but males more frequently venture beyond.
Most migrants are adults: families rarely migrate out of their country of birth.
Large towns grow more by migration than by natural increase.
Migration increases in volume as industries and commerce develop and transport improves.
The major direction of migration is from the agricultural areas to the centers of industries and commerce.
The major causes of migration are economic. (source: Grigg 1977)
All of his lows are important in 20th century’s migration research.

In behavioral approach, it gives emphasis on the individual as a decision maker. By this approach we can investigate how psychological processes of cognition and decision making mediate between the environment and the individual which help individual to get decision to migrate and to spent his goods. Wolpert is a key figure in the development of behavioral approach, in a series of papers in mid 1960s [wolpert, 1964, 1965, and 1966]. He developed the concept of place utility defined as:’ the net composite of utilities which are derived from the individual’s integration at some time and space ……… may be expressed as a positive or negative quality, expressing  respectively the individuals satisfaction or dissatisfaction with respect to that place” [Wolpert, 1964]. Individuals will move to a place that offers an overall higher place utility than either the origin or alternative destination crucially, what takes this understanding beyond that of the human capital approaches that exactly how these relative utilities are expressed is problematic. They may be the actual characteristics, as the neoclassical tradition would suggest or they may be represented by the subjective and possibly inaccurate perceptions of the individual in their behavioral environment.  

In social network approach it concentrate on linkages between sender and recipient countries. The linkage helps to sustain patterns of migration over time. These approaches also serve to link origins and destinations and explain how the people of origin become migrate. “Gulati-(1993), emphasized the sustained, if after difficult to maintain, connections that the women kept with their husbands working overseas. Crucial here were the monetary remittances sent back home which were used to support the family and to invest in property. These linkages let to return migration by the husbands, although in other situation the “Quests” may stay in their new home areas”. (Paul, 1998).

Marxist approach highlights on duality and exploitation in peoples participation in social life, where, Neo-Marxist approach build a linkage, cultural and economic phenomena with western developed world and of developing third world.

Neo- Marxist, Wallestein in his “world system theory “focuses on the spatial growth of the capitalist economy. He said, “This economy covered the entire lobe. If we recognize such a global geographical structure, economic variation between countries reflects the uneven character of capitalist development. International labor migration is a response to this unevenness and its geographical areas, defined by the shorts of economic activities that go on in each” (Paul, 1998).

“Migration is natural outgrowth of disruptions and disruptions and dislocations that inevitably occur in the process of capitalist development and flows the political and economic organization of an expending global market. While much world systems analysis focuses on migration from peripheral to core locations and the exploitation of these migrants in the core areas, appreciation of a global economy”(Massey, 1993).    

Literature Review:
I found some literature, which is related with human migration. I only discuss those literatures which are related with international migration.

B. N. Ghosh discussed in his book, “population theories and Demographic analysis” has defined migration, its affects and types. He defined migration by mobility and said that it increase mobility and migration means the change of place of living for almost a permanent period. On his opinion, migration is internal and international and internal migration is more frequent than the international migration. He said that people migrate to better place by pull or push factor. He also specially some factors which discourage migration, these are distance uncertainty about income and employment, attachment to old place of living, different language, dbl establishment and stat regulation.

Peter. R. Cox in his book “Demography” (1970) has discussed about migration. He has inducted a research on demographic change. He said, “Early migration would have been influenced by climate, fertility of soil, floral and fauna of environment” (Cox, 1970). By his opinion, among the migrants majority consist of those who belong age groups 15-20 and 30-35 and said that the major causes of migration is economy.

According to, A. Revenstein’s migrant move from area of low opportunity to area of high opportunity. He presents his low of migration in 1985 and 1989. He said, the choice of destination is regulated by distance, with migrants from rural areas often showing a tendency to move first towards nearly town and then towards large cities. He also paints out urban residents are less migratory then the rural. Lastly, migration accelerates with the increase in the means of transport and communication and expansion of tread and industry. For the economy as a whole migration net effects may be positive or negative. On the positive side the rural migrant generally constitute a comparatively more resourceful and selective segments of human capital. Therefore their reallocation on a more dynamic urban environment will improve the resource base of the national economy. On the negative side the deterioration in the equality of urban life cast by the influx of migrant’s shanty-town; slums and squatter settlements have become a permanent feature of all the cities.

Paul Byle et al (1988) have written the book on “Exploring contemporary Migration”. In this book authors have highlighted the significant of migration in shaping people’s lives and experiences in the contemporary world. For international migrants especially migration is frequently associated with living a familiar home environment and the often disquieting experience of setting into a culturally very different place. In the modern world people are migrating in different party for economic purpose. Some people are moving for political unrest. Many young adults are moving for other countries in search of employment. For intonations migrants especially migration is frequently associated with leaving a families home environment and the often disquieting experiences of setting into culturally very different place.

R. Skeldon (1977) has written a book named “Migration and Development: A Global prospective” In his book, he has written about migration and development implies that, these are some kind of relationship between them. In 1950, about one quarter of the world’s population lived in cities. By 1990, this population had resent to 45% representing 2400 millions people. The most highly developed countries are also the most highly urbanized. Also poor country is proceeding towards urbanization rapidly. As a result, process of development and one of the principal ways which this transfer is made by rural to urban migration. There is a clear division between internal and international migration and there is also a division between migrations the developed worlds and that in the developing world. The majority of migration goes on a short distance. Migrants going long distances generally go by preference to one of the great center of commerce of industry. Most migrants are adults; families rarely migrate out of their country of their birth. Transport improves with migration and the major causes of migration are economic. The pushes and pulling factors are generally responsible for migration. Author has highlighted human migration as integral part if the creation of the world system through the establishment of European colonies and trading post across the global which kink the capitalist system through and expanding interacting human network. Shift from trans-Atlantic to trans-pacific system of migration and the establishment of south to north movements in the Americas and towers Europe should not give the impression that these are the only major international migration system. From the 1970, large flows of skilled and unskilled labor have been directed to the well rich countries of the Persians Gull. Initially from neighboring countries in the Middle-East, the migration fields rapidly extended to include countries in south and south-east Asia. In t6he modern world, people are migrating different countries all over the world job, recreation and tourism. Another cause of migration is shortage of labor in different countries in the world. Many migrants are sending economic remittances to their relatives in our country. One of the most significant shifts in thinking about the process of migration and development in recent ears has been on acceptance that urbanization in developing countries is inevitable.

Khakid Kaser & Helme Lutz (1998) has edited the book “The New Migrants in Europe”. In this authors have compiled three chapters on migration issues. In the second chapter they edited social construction of the new migration and in the third chapter and article “Intra-Urban Residential Migration of old Dhakaiya People” written by Hafiza Khatum; In this article, writer expressed, Intra-Urban migration patterns in any major city are responses of the city dwellers to different demographic and socio-economic factors ranging from changes in their housing aspirations for various reasons and infrastructural changes in the city. Through the process of residential mobility, a city experiences cultural diffusion as well as changes in the social structure of different areas. Stages of the life-cycle have been most pronounced as a determining factor in the literature of intra-urban residential migration. Most researchers have concluded that probability of a change of residence of a household is very high in the child-bearing and child rearing stages of its life-cycle. Households have some common reasons to move and are biased towards the outer and newly developed areas of the city. Intra-urban residential migration is indeed a mechanism for a household to adjust its changing housing needs with the change of stages in its life-cycle and socio-economic status. Households are more likely to move when they experiences certain changes in family composition such as household size, age, marital status and occupation of the members of the household.

Katy Gardner (1995) has written a book on “Global Migrants Local Lives”. In his book he has highlighted various issues on migrant village. This is an anthropological interpretation of a village of Sylhet in south Asia. This is a micro level village study book, he shown that migration and power are inseparable. In Sylhet, bidhesh has become a metaphor power and advancement. Power relation in studied village Talukpur in part a result of migration, are intimately connected to the production and reproduction, of local culture. Also Gardner has shown that spatial decisions can be seen everywhere in Talukpur. Parda is closely tied to the sexual division of labor in this village. Work is divided into male and female spheres. All outside works in dome by men like agricultural production, plough, planting and harvesting fields, care of cattle and other live stokes. Within the homestead vegetables, fruit trees are dome by women. Also he has shown the category of attioya relatives in the village. There is fictive relation among the villagers. Through kinship links villagers are moving to abroad. Also households are made of the bases of kinship. Bangladeshi society has been characterized by mist commentators as patrimonial. Descent is through men and ancestry is traced back through the male tine. Under Muslim inheritance law, daughter inherits half of what their brother receives.

A paper was presented at a seminar on Anthropology in Bangladesh, held at the British council, Dhaka on 13.04.1994 by Dr. Katy Gardner entitled “Global Entrepreneur: overseas migration from Sylhet”. In the paper Dr Gardner showed some causes of migration from Sylhet to England. According to her, the British exploited India since 17th century for her new material and goods, market for their own produce and for cash crops which could be grown on its land. By the 20th century another resources was beginning to be values cheap labor. But the other question is why rather other district of north Bengal, Sylhet became established as a sender of lasers. Dr. Katy has given the answer of this question, social competition between families over land and thus social status, was a key feature of Talukder. 

Dr. D. clare Wanger, Dr. A. A. Biswas and Dr. V. Burhalf conduct a research in a village of Sylhet about migration. In the research “Bhadeswar A Migrant Village” (2002), they want to show the socio-economic condition of the village, life pattern of old people and family condition of the village. The researchers found that old people are interested in life after death. They live with their son and grandson, sometimes they feel lonely. They showed that socio-economic condition is good and people were depending on agriculture and foreign remittance.

Method and Techniques of the Study:
Methodology is very important for any kinds of research. It is just like a path and by following this path researcher conducts with the respondent and people of the study area. By following this path researcher find out the related perception and reality about selected issues of study in any specific study area. Here I describe those methods which I had been followed when I was in my field.
The study has been conducted in “puruspal” village in “Mathura” union of Beanibazar than of Sylhet district. Most of the household depends on foreign money for their consumption and expenditure. One or more household member of the village are migrated in different countries of the world. The migrated people have good conduct with their household in village. I have collect data from the household member of the area. To collect data I have followed some technique, which is given below-

Rapport Building:
At first I had built rapport with the villagers. I had a fear that if  first time I conduct with the poor, then rich people will have a chance to treat me as a agent of the poor and as the effect of this technique data collection from rich migrant become problematic for me. My followed style also made some problems as poor people firstly think me an agent of any NGO. Some rich people also thought me an agent of government and said that if I publish this study then the migration process will be hampered.

I have done a survey in the village with the help of my junior and some villagers, and by taking some of idea about the ecological and the social environment.

To collect data I have used non random sampling so that I can collect data from all the classes of people. From the survey I selected the households from which I had collected data and its size is 25.  

Observation was one of the main techniques of data collection of the study. Because as an outsider of the area, it was not possible for me to participate with the villagers. Observing the villagers, I tried to understanding the villager’s behaviors about migration.

Key Informant:
Sometimes direct observation was not possible. So the remaining source of information was recalls of individuals who were participant in the study area. The key informant tried to help me exploring the actual information about the study issue.

Informal Interview:
In the research I have followed the informal interview method as a conversation that was helpful to conduct the research. Here some questions were specific but people’s personal conditions were included at the time of interviewing.

I have used a checklist in order to collect data in written form. There were 31 specific points in the checklist relevant to the study issue.

Cross check: To justify the data, I have used cross cheek, it helps me to understand the actual reality of given data by the respondents.

Case Study:
Case study can give a clear idea about any issue. So case study technique also followed in the study.

In presenting and analyzing data, I have followed qualitative form of analysis, although for the better understanding of the area, a calculation and statistical document also used here.

Limitations of the study:
To conduct the study, I have faced several problems, one of main that, to collect secondary source about the study area. With particular methodology, I saw that many of crucial information could be omitted. Therefore, a particular methodology was not followed. It could not be easier to participate in the village because of continuous academic purposes. I have collected data in some religious vacations. The fact that in that village people always try not to give original information’s, for this I had to cross checks the data. One of the big problems is that I do not understand which data or event is important because of my own society, every act is easier for me. Some times villagers suspect me as a spy of government and for this they do not want to talk with me. Considering above problems the study has finished because of the helps of some well wishers.

Chapter Two

Area of the study:
For anthropological research, field is very important. I have called data from my study area. I have selected my field in a village of “Mathiure” Union of Beanibazar thana under Sylhet district. In this chapter I will try to discuss about my study area.

To conduct the study, I have selected the area in a village of Sylhet district named “Puruspal”. The area of Beanibazar thana is 251 km2. It is situated in 24045′ and 28057′ north latitude to 92005′ and 92015′ east longitude (Haque, 2001). The village is in “Mathiure” Union of Beanibazar thana. It is 61 km away from Sylhet City Corporation and situated in the south east part of Sylhet district. In geographical position, “Nagpur” is in the north, “Nasirabad” is in the south, “Methiura Paschimpar” is in the east of Mathiura Union and “Kalijuri” of “Budbaribazar” Union is in the west. The village is 8 km far from Beanibazar police station and 63 km from Sylhet City Corporation. To visit the village one can go by bus from “Kadantaly” bus station to Beanibazar thana and then go by a rickshaw or car to the village.

Historical Background of the Study People:
As elsewhere in South Asia, Bengal has been involved in overseas migration for hundreds of years. Seventeenth century records say that East India company nobles returned to Britain with Bengali servants, and from the earliest days of the company’s operations sailors were employed by British ships docked in Calcutta. The sailors invariably performed the most unpleasant tasks on the ships, with far lower wages than their British. The sailors came from all over East Bengal, especially from Chittagong, Noakhali and Sylhet. These men were the first of millions of South Asians to be drooped into the global labor market.

The sailors were the first pioneers to tread a path, which in the later part of the twentieth century linked particular districts closely to Britain through the international labor market. In East Bengal, it was Sylhet that become especially bonded to Britain,  although East India company sailors were originally from many parts of Bengal, by the mid twentieth century, Sylhet slowly becom the source of employment.

During this period, East Bengal was not by any means, isolated and unaffected by west, and British capitalism. Instead of a colonial relationship, which was later to be replayed in the form of men working on British ships and then in British factories, it was firmly established. For whist Britain had explored India since the 17th century for her raw materials and goods, and for the cash crops which could be grown on its land and as a market for their own produce. By the 20th century, another resource began to be valued: cheap labor. For some unknown reasons, Sylhet had its link by the sailors and labor.

“Rather than the “push” factor of poverty, in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, migration was therefore an opportunity which in general only richer or middle income rural families could afford. Indeed, figures from migrant areas in Sylhet indicate the only 13.73% of migrants were land less before journeying overseas. Similar characteristics are shared by other South Asian emigrants, certainly key in Sylhet, is an important element of migration (Kessinger: 1979).

Combined with these socio-economic features, physical geography may also have played a part. Many of Sylhet’s major Londoni areas are near Sylhet’s major river, the kusiyara, which once carried Calcutta bound boats taking jute and rice away from the area. Local people therefore had encouragement to work on the ships.

By the end of 1958, about 55,000 Indians and Pakistanis were resident in Britain. The past-war British economy had badly needed extra laborer and it was mostly from Caribbean and South Asia which was recruited. As James Callaghon put it in speech to the House of Commons in 1946: “In a few years time we in this country will he faced with a shortage of labor we are turning away from the shores of this country describe young men who could be adding to our strength and resources……………..It may be revolutionary to suggest that we ought now to become a country where immigrants are welcome, but that really is the logical development of our present position in the world…....... “(Parliamentary Debates, 1946; and quoted in Cohen, 1987; 124).
In 1962 the commonwealth Immigrants Bill was introduced and only commonwealth citizens issued with Ministry of Labor employment vouchers could enter the country as primary migrants. By the act of 1962, the period from 1962 to 1965, was the time of greatly increased movement to Britain from South Asia. The new legislation was created what Sylheties speak of today as the “labor voucher” System. By this voucher a lot of Sylheties went to Britain between 1962 and 1965, permanently.

Many people were working hard for their families in Britain, another means of earning money aboard had developed and people started to migrate in Middle East in 1970s, and were directly related to the boom in oil prices in 1974, which bed to the expansion of Middle Eastern economics and the large-scale creation of new job opportunities. Migration to the Middle East is not confined to Sylhet, but is common to many parts of Bangladesh. And yet the wish to leave, to sell one’s labor abroad, to become immigrant remains.

Logical Basis to select the Area:
I have selected the area of my study for some logic.
First, the area is situated in a last part of its thana and after this there is no people’s residence, all the land are agricultural.    
Second, the area of the village is comparatively small from other villages of the thana, which is supporting for me to study.
Third, most of the households of the village have at least one or more migrated member.
Four, the residential area of the village can be easily separate from other village’s residential area.
Five,  economically different types of people live in the village, and their occupation is also different.

Population of the study area:
The total voters of the village is 566, among them 261 are male and 305 are female (Election commission, 2000). The total population of the village is 958, among them 273 are adult male and 362 is adult female and the rest of 323 is under 18 years old. Among 958 people, 307 are migrated in different countries of the world, including female and children; all the people of the village are Muslim by religion.


          Male     Female                      
958    307    261    305    273    323    307   
                                    Source: primary source
Occupation of the villagers:
In the study area, villagers have different types of occupation. Some people are engaged in cultivation, some in business, some are migrated, and some are laborer, some are carpenter. In the village 39 households are engaged in agriculture, 22 in business, 72 in migration related, and laborer, carpenter etc are 16. There are also 2 household who live on rich villagers and their relatives. The total households of the village are 113. Some people are engaged in share cropping and some in their own land.

Occupation    No. of households    In percentage       
Cultivation     39    26      
Business     22    14      
Migration    72    48      
Others    18    12      
Total    151    100   
                                    Source: primary source
Houses of the study area:
The total houses of the village are 234 including the cattle house. Most of the households have a cattle house. Some households have only one house and some of them have 2 to 4. In the village there are 98 houses are made by mud and bamboo; 46 are made by cement, wood and tin, 52 are made by cement and tin and 38 are made by concrete and iron.

Types (made by)     No. of houses    In percentage (%)      
Bamboo& mud    98    41.9      
Cement, tin & wood    46    19.7      
Cement & tin    52    22.2      
Concrete & iron    38    16.2      
Total    234        100   
                                    Source: primary source
Intuitions of the Study Area:
In the village there are no other people without Muslim. There are a primary school, a Madrasa (religious institution) and three Mosques. Two Mosques are small. One of these is made by concrete and iron another is made by concrete and tin. There is also a big Mosque, where the weekly prayer “Jumma” is held. All the villagers attend there at the time of prayer. The management of the Mosques is maintained by the villagers. The Madrasa is a multistoried building and maintained by the villagers. The Primary School has two houses. One is made by concrete and tin and another by concrete and iron. The School is being financed by the ministry of education of Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. There is no health center or High School in the village. There are also six shops in the village which is attached to the main road of the village.

Land of the Study Area:
In Bangladesh, land is an important object for a village. The total land of the village is 75 acres (State requisition, 1967). About 30 acres are residential area and 45 acres are agricultural land. There is also allowing land in the north side of the village which always undergoes water. It is the fishing area of the village. There is also a big drain which flow inside the village and it is attached with the left side of the main road. The average residential area per household is 0.19 score and average agricultural land is 0.29 acre per household. People have 0.07-0.84 acre of residential area and 0-13 acres of agricultural land.

The village is divided into three part, “Purbopara” (East part); “Moddopara” (Middle part); and “Kuna para” (South part). School, madrasa and big Mosque are in Moddopara.


     Residencial (area)    Agricultural (area)      
     Total    Avg (household)    Total    Avg/household      
75    30    0.19    45    0.29   
                                      Source: primary source

Literacy rate of the people of the Study Area:

In the village there are only one Primary School and a Madrasa. There is no other educational institution. Students go to the near village after completing class five for study. In the village 85% people know how to sign, 22.5% have passed the S.S.C or equivalent and 9.6% have passed the H.S.C. or equivalent. 15% villagers do not know how to sign. In Primary School there are 120 students and 49% people know how to sign.

                                                                                                                                Source:  primary source
Classification of the Study People:

In Puruspal Village, 39 households are engaged in agriculture, 22 in business, and 72 in migration. So their income can not be calculated by formal Economic. Another thing is the social status of the villagers can not be justified in a short time research. So in classification, I have considered the villager’s monthly expenditure. By this I have classified them in to three groups, lower, middle and higher. These classifications is given below –

Class    Expenditure (Taka)    Household  No    In percentage      
Poor    0-3,500    29    26      
Middle    3,500-8,00    38    34      
Higher    8,000+    46    40      
Total        113    100   
                                    Source:  primary source

                                          Chapter 3
“Human beings are social animals and our pattern of group living has inducted value of our survivable as a species. One way of looking at social organization is to look at the different groups that are found in a society. In societies traditionally studied by anthropologists, social organization is the most important” (Nanda, 1987). Encyclopedia of social and cultural Anthropology defined social organization as “to the used loosely to refer to the sum total of activities performed in a given social context” (1996)

In every society, there are different types of organizations, which are very closely bonded with the people. These are kinship, family, marriage, religion, political organization, economic organization etc. By these organizations, the whole society controls the performance of its people. Different anthropologist showed this in different societies of the world. The changing pattern of the society changes the whole society. In modern period migration can change the pattern of the organization because migration has a close link with kinship, family and marriage. I have considered social organization as family, kinship, and marriage in my study and in this chapter I will discuss the relationship between family and migration and also discuss the impact of migration on family.

Family and migration:
“Human family is a group composed of women, her dependent children and at least one adult male joined throu8gh marriage or blood relationship. The family may take many forms, ranging all the way from a single married couple with their children, as in North American society, to a large group compassed of severed brothers and sisters with the sister’s with the sister’s children, as in southwest India among the Nayar. The particular form taken by the family is related to particular social, historical and ecological circumstances” (Haviland; 1990).
In modern times, family is considered as universal unit of society. People live in families, and their every performance is maintained by the family. So there would be some relation between family and international migration and also would have some impacts.

Family types:
In Puruspal village, nuclear and extended families are found. Most of the nuclear families have no migrated member. But their relatives are migrated. These people are divided into nuclear form after the death of their parents. The society is patrilineal and after the marriage, son lives with his parents and others in household. Most extended families have migrated member and they live in Europe or America, some also live in Middle East. Their members have citizenship in the migrated countries. But they have a good contract in their local family and they sometimes visit their local families. These members always send remittance to their local families. In migrated families, the property is not distribute into brothers because, the migrated people don’t live permanently in the village, and so if they distribute their property, they can not take care of the property. For this their property is not distributed.

Causes of the types:
In present time, people are trying to be migrated in urban areas or outside their country for better life and they love in nuclear family types of rural area and extended and are turned into nuclear.
In Puruspal village, the families are two types; nuclear and extended. The families become nuclear for the internal conflict between housewives of extended families. In the field of production, the family member who has not enough roles became marginalized and for this the family become nuclear. Sometimes owner ship of property and decision making problem create nuclear families. One of the major causes to be nuclear is consumption. The female member or housewives always try to give her children better food. But in an extend family she can’t do this. For this she tries to maintain nuclear family. In the village, most of the nuclear families are poor or middle class. All poor peasants’ families are nuclear. They hardly maintain their family consumption and it is impossible for them to maintain extended family. The people of the village think that extended family maintain better status than the nuclear  respective to the society.

Most of the rich families of the village especially which have one or more migrated member, maintain extended family. The migrated member has their individual   savings. They think that if they become nuclear, then who will take care about property because they live in migrated country. Some families have joint property but their production or income and funeral pile is different. One of these is Mr. Tazammul Ali (70). He has six brothers three of them live in England with their children and wives. Mr. Ali’s three sons also live in England. Another two brothers live in village. They have 12 acors if they distribute it then who will take care of the migrated brothers property.

Socialization and Migration:
    Socialization describes the process through which people and especially children are made to take on the ides and behaviour appropriate to life in a particular society. As such it describes an essentially passive process and takes for granted theory of the person as an individual in society. Here society and the individual are conceived of as phenomena of different orders; society as a phenomenon of collective life is understood to precede and to encompass   the individual (Encyclopedia of social and cultural Anthropology; 1998).

Family is the first unit for a child, from where, socialization occurred. The socialization process builds the children’s psychology and children play their role in society. If family is influenced by migration then their socialization process will also be influenced by migration. In early discussion I have tried to make understand the family types and its causes. Now I will try to discuss the socialization process of the village. I will discuss it into two parts, male socialization and female socialization and its relation with migration.

Among rich families most of the children become familiar with the concept of migration, from their very begging of their childhood. So they grow up in such a social situation where they always see and feel the importance of migration in their life. Thus “migration” plays a vital role in their socialization process. From the age 3 to 4 years the children are sent to mosque to learn their primary religious rituals and practices. At the age of 5-6 years the children go to school. The socialization of children in the study area for male and female child is different.

For a boy’s socialization, importance is being given to him. He will take care of his parents at their old age. He will income money for his family and continue relationship with his native and relatives. For this the family always tries to send him in Europe or America. They don’t give importance on his education. Some families are interested on education, but they don’t continue it because they think that if they don’t get chance in future to send him. Some times families send their newborn children to outside the country with their kin relatives as the relative’s son. At the adult age, the children who are already migrated member, especially in England or America, they behave differently with the senior of his village. Instead of respect, they joke with the seniors and the senior also response him because these boys families have enough money he or she can take their financial support. So the status of the child or boy is better then the poor senior. Some adult boys also maintain their seniority and juniority with the villagers. The family doesn’t engage their adult son with agriculture, business or any kind of occupation in locale area. They think that if their son is being engaged with local area, they will not income enough money and live a poor life.

In poor families, the children go to mosque at the age of 3/4 years and goes to school or madrasa at the age of 5/6. Maximum time they are being engaged in madrasa, because they thought, first it will be low of cost to study in madrasa, second, if they complete their study, they will get job in a mosque or madrasa and they can earn money by religious rituals and peoples help. Third, if the boys become a good religious leader, and if he will go to heaven, then the parents will also go to heaven.  Form their childhood; they engaged in household works and they are bound to respect the rich because some times they take financial support from the rich. They enjoy a status as a usual the boy of village.

In the study area, female socialization is different. Most of the families, try to engage their daughter with housework with her mother, so that the daughter can go her husband’s residence after her marriage and take care of them. So they have no need for enough study, for this the female children doesn’t go to high school in poor families. In rich families, parents think that they have to make a marriage of their daughter with a financially strong and respective family especially with a migrated man who lives in England or America. For this, they give importance to the demand of the migrated people and engage their daughter in study. They think that if their daughters complete her higher secondary education, she would be got married with a migrated man. At the time of her study, girls can help her mother in housework’s, where the boys do not help their father. It is for making the girl a good housewife and the daughter doesn’t go to out side the house without her parents’ permission or alone. If she needs to go, then she goes with her younger brother or sister.

Most of the poor families’ daughters do not go to school. After completing her religious education from the mosque, they have to help their mother in housework. In some poor families, they give chance to their daughter to complete her primary education, but they must help their mother. Some times, the daughter gives their labor in the rich families especially in any social program. The poor families thinking is their daughter would be married with a poor where she must complete all housework and will give hard labor to maintain her husband’s family. So they must know every housework including cooking, child caring, housekeeping etc. but in rich families, the girls are not engaged in hard work. They only know how to make tea or some breakfast that would be offered to their guests. They don’t know how to cook or other works of house.

Mr. Shakur’s family is different from others. His father was a teacher, now he lives in England with her wife. Mr. Shakur has one brother, and he lives in village. Both of the brothers are educated, their wives are also educated. Their father gave importance on education and advised them to live in village, so that there children had learned their own culture. They have sufficient money to be migrated but they don’t do that. In occupation he is a teacher and his brother has a medicine shop. Their father prepares them to live in village.

Telcott Persons said that, a child is born in a society without being a person. She has to learn language, rules, patterns of behavior, and the social system, which make involve him in social life. Children learn this primarily in the family and she play role in society whatever she learns. In adult period, children learn from their society and their school. In persons view another function of family is the Stalinization of adult personalities. This personality also makes from the childhood with socialization and the children will behave as they socialized.

In Puruspal area, from childhood, rich families’ children become familiar with migration and poor families with household work. Their socialization process is related with migration and in school she also knows about her society. Her society is depending on migration and cultivation (for poor). So as the children grow up in this situation, their mentality and behavior also reflect on by their attitude.

Maintenance and Migration:
One of the important functions of family is to maintain it. For this different members play different roles inside and out side the family. In the study area male and female play different role in family. Generally male people are engaged in income and female are engaged in household works and child rearing.

In family, female are engaged with cooking, child rearing, house chining and some times with producing vegetables inside the house. In rich families, male servent helps the female at their work. Their servants come from internal migration of different place and work there by monthly wages. Some servant doesn’t take their wage in monthly; they take it annually or some years later so that they can get more money to invest in their life. Young female servants save their money for marriage. Most of the servants are interested in Londoni families to work. From these families’ they get more money as their wage, Jakat or trips. Their servant help the housewives in cooking, house chining, washing etc. The housewives cook foods and the servant helps them to serve the elements and goods for cooking. In the study area the female are responsible for child rearing. They have to feed the children in different times, make them both and change their dress. The female maintain it with their entire job. The female also serve food to their family member and take their meal at lost. They maintain the female servants and also maintain relationship with the neighbors. The male are engaged with income related job and to serve all the equipments that a family needs. For income, poor people are engaged with migration. The main income of rich families is foreign remittance. Another thing that is, decision making, which is made by the male persons. In poor families, male take all the decisions and in rich and educated families, some times they take decisions with the female. In rich families, decisions are made by the migrated people, because these people serve the economy of the family. In some cases the local family member can take decision but in vital cases the decision made by the migrated people.

In the field of production, families appoint laborers, who come from different place. Their laborers are wagged by daily or monthly even yearly. Those who are engaged monthly or yearly, they live with the family.

In rich families, especially those who have migrated member in Europe or America, they appoint male servant as caretakers. These servants have no role in production. They only move according to the member of the family. They are paid in monthly wage and live with family. The male person of the family also appoint house tutor for their children if they need and they are responsible for their teaching though the families are not very interested in education. If any member suffers from any kind of diseases, the male manage the doctor and medicine and female take care until the recovery from the diseases. Some times they go to mulla or Sylhet town for better treatment. In poor families they don’t have any kind of servant especially who have no migrated member and they maintain they’re all work by themselves.

From above discussion, it could be said that the family and its structure is influenced by migration. Rich peoples families do not turned from extended to nuclear because of migration. The poor families are turned into nuclear. In socialization process, family play most important role, the children’s mentality is grow from here and at the young age they try to be migrate. In rich families, they engage servants to help their daily work and in poor family, they engage their daughter to help their mother. But in both families, daughters are engage to maintain or to help their mother in household works.

  Chapter Four

Kinship, Marriage and Migration:

“Kinship and marriage are the basic facts of life. They are about birth and copulation and death, the eternal round that seemed to depress the poet but which excites amongst others, the anthropologist. Copulation produces the relation between mates which is the foundation of marriage and parenthood. Birth produces children and the lasting mother child bond, the most fundamental and basic of all social bonds. Death produce a gap is the social group and demands replacement. The study of kinship is the study of what he does and why he does it, and the consequences of the adoption of one alternative rather than another. This is the basic study in the social sciences because these are the most basic social bond,” (Fox, 1967). 

Kinship and marriage play an important role in the society. If these change, the society or especially the social structure would be changed. By migration a gap between the people is occurring. For this their relation with others would be flexible, for this geographical gap. People try to make up this gap by marriage. Sometimes they are engage with kin marriage by which they would have fulfilled the gap and also can be migrate. In this chapter I will discuss the relationship between migration, kinship and marriage

Kinship Network:

In non-industrial societies, kin groups commonly deal with problems that cannot be handled by families and households alone; problems such as those involving defense the allocation of property or the pooling of other resources. As societies become larger and more complex, formal political system takes over many of these matters. A common form of kinship group is the descent group, which has as its criterion of membership descent from a common ancestor through a series of parent-child link. Unilineal descent establishes kin group membership exclusively through the male or female line. Matrilineal descent is traced through the female line and patrilineal, through the male” (Haviland; 1990).

There are five kinds of kinship relations in the field of Anthropology which are most recognized. These are: kin relation, fictive relation, an affinal relation, joking relation, avoidance relation. In kin relation, the people are related by kin or blood and these are the relation between parents and children. In affinal relation, relationship is made by marriage and these are husband wife relation, brother-in-law and sister-in-law relation. In fictive relation, the relationships are made by the interaction of people. These relations may be of different types and occurred by living in same place.

Joking relation occurs with brother-in-law and sister-in-law and between grand-father and grand son. Abundance relation is occurred between mother-in-law and son-in-law. In my study area, these relations are very active. People always try to maintain these relations and by this they become engaged with one another. A descent group considered them as kin group. For kin marriage, the kinship overlaps the relation between brother and sister (cousin) and turn to husband and wife. The uncle and aunt become father-in-law and mother-in-law. By these all the relations are overlapped in the village. The total kinship system lock the villagers in relative bond and all the people are some how relative or kin with one another.

Types of marriage:

Marriage is a transaction and resulting contract in which a woman and a man are recognized by the society as having a continuing claim to the right of sexual access to each other, and in which the women involved is eligible to bear children. Although in many societies, husbands and wives live together as members of the same household, this is not true in all societies. And though most marriage around the world tend to be to a single spouse, most societies permit, and regard as most desirable, marriage of a single individual to multiple spouse. (Haviland, 1990).

In different societies, anthropologist has found different types of marriage. These are: Polygyny: the husband having several wives at the same time, some times it is found in Bangladesh. Polyandry: A woman having several husbands at a time. Group marriage: several men and women have sexual access to one another at the same time. Levirate: a widow marries a brother of her dead husband. Sororate: widower marries his dead wife’s sister. Serial monogamy: A marriage form in which a man or a woman marries or lives with a series of partners in succession. Cousin marriage: this marriage is occurred in cross or parallel cousin. In patrilateral parallel-cousin marriage, a man marries his father’s brother’s daughter or a woman, to her father’s brother’s son. And in matrilateral cross-cousin marriage, a woman marries her father’s sister’s son or a man his mother’s brother’s daughter. Sometimes levirate and sororate marriage is occurred in the village.

In the study area, people are practiced in monogamy marriage. This marriage would be within kin or outside the kin and this kinship play an important role in migration. The people, who became migrated, try to make their relatives or kin migrant. There is legal and illegal migration system. For legal system it needs to get married with a migrated person and for this, people are interested in cousin marriage. For illegal migration, it needs 12,00,000 to 15,00,000 taka for a man, which is offer by migrated kin as lend. Another legal migration system is by work permit visa. But those who migrate by this have to get citizenship to stay there and for this, they are engaged in marriage with a citizen. For this they are interested in kin marriage. Sometimes people get married out side the kin but it needs a lot of money. In local area, people arrange marriage inside and out side the kin. Sometimes they willingly do it and sometimes they are bound to do it.

Marriage ratio:

Marriage Types    No of families    Percentage (%)      
With in kin    11    44      
Out side kin    14    56      
Total    25    100   
                                    Source: primary source

Marriage out side the kin:

In the study area, people like marriage out side the kin. Their opinion is, by this marriage relationship will be extended and they would be familiar with more people. Another thing is, they might be engaged with respective families which can bring more status for them and also get more dowries which are now social rituals. The people consider status by their family background, economic condition, education etc. These types of marriage is occurred by a matchmaker and he/she might be a relative or not. The match-maker does not have any economic interest, and he arranges it by the two families’ opinions, and it is family arranged marriage.

Ratio of causes of outside kin marriage:

Causes of Marriage    No of families    Percentage      
For migration    11    78.57%      
Normal    3    2.43%      
Total     14    100%   
                                    Source: primary source

Dowry is one of the important subjects for marriage, now-a-days. In the study area it is very popular but people consider it as a social system and all people have to maintain it. People give it to the bridegroom as a gift, by furniture, crocarise and every thing for a family needs. The rich people give luxurious furniture, television, refrigerator, V.C.P. etc with their daughter. The middle class and poor people give as much as they can. People think that if they don’t offer it, their daughter will not be happy in husband’s residence, the relatives would pick up the bride. On the other hand bridegroom will give money as “Denmohor” (religious payment) to the bride but the people does not pay it now although there is strong religious binding to pay it before touching the bride by bridegroom.

This marriage and the payments are recognized by the parents and seniors of both families. In this type of marriage, the bridegroom needs a job to support his family consumption. Some times some people get married without any job, because his parents or brothers are migrated and he has enough money. He may have married an educated and physically beautiful girl.

The payment of dowry is different for male and female. Generally dowry is taken by the bridegroom from bride’s parent and the bridegroom pays only denmohor. But for migration, it is different. The citizenship holder may be male or female, receive dowry and its items are different. Female citizen try to get land and ornaments from bridegroom as the security of the bride so the bridegroom does not divorce her. Here denmohor is also very high about 6 to 12 lack taka although in local marriage it is not more than 4 lack taka. On the other hand, male citizen try to get married with physically beautiful, educated bridegroom and they want dowry by material goods like, car, motorcycle, television, luxurious furniture, refrigerator, V.C.P. etc. they do not like cash payment. Every people is agree to pay this dowry for their life security. Their thinking is, if they get marry, they will go to Europe or America where he will earned might be a lot of money. In the marriage out of kin, sometimes the dowry is recognized by the parent of the both families in a program which is called “Pan-chini”. Sometimes professional match-marker arranges this marriage and gets economic support from both sides.

Marriage within kin:
In the study area, though people like marriage out side the kin, but most of the time they make new relation with kin by marriage. People give importance on decent line and the economic condition. Most of the people know about their relatives’ decent line and economic condition. They also know the behavior of the family members. For this they are interested in kin marriage. By this marriage kinship is overlapped. Sometimes this marriage makes relation strong and some times it fall in problem. These marriages are occurred between two members of different families who belong to same generation. People do not arrange it between them, whose marriage relation is forbidden in Islam. These types of marriage is arrange both for local lives and for migration. This marriage is very important for migration and now people do not like it for local lives.

Some families give word to one another for their children’s marriage at their childhood. In rich families, especially migrant families like kin marriage. They think that if they engage in kin marriage, their relative will be migrated and poor or middle class families always try to marry their migrated kin, so that they can be migrated.

Ratio of causes of kin Marriage:

Causes of marriage    No of families    Percentage      
For migration    7    63.64      
Normal    4    36.36      
Total    11    100   
                                    Source: primary source

Dowry is also important in kin marriage. For local kin marriage, people give furniture, crocarise, television, refrigerator etc according to their property in their daughter marriage. People are bound to give it even though there is no demand for it. If they do not give it, their daughter would not enjoy high status and feel shame. The bride only pay the denmohor but not in cash although there is strong regulation to pay it in cash at the time when he sign in marriage form. If the bride or bridegroom is migrated, then the migrated people receive dowry, bride receives land and sometimes a lot of cash as security for her life. The bridegroom parents also pay it without any question because their son needs to be migrated. If he becomes migrated without marriage, he would have got married in migrated country and it would be more expensive and for this they give dowry without any question. In kin marriage sometimes the dowry is recognized by both families and sometimes not. The bridges family always demands it, if the bride is migrated. Sometimes when migrated relative come with his daughter for marriage, the local relatives, or kin become engaged with competition so that they can agree their son’s marriage with the migrated girl.

Marriage and Migration:
A substantial literature has developed around the link between marriage and mobility, both on an international and on local scale. Jackson and Flores (1992) have taken one of the most thorough studies of international migration for marriage and its demographic consequences. They focused on the migration of Filipinas to Australia, nothing that perhaps 20,000 Filipina brides had moved to Australia since the late 1960s. British census date often make it impossible to link specific acts such as a change of address with a change of marital status. How ever, 80 percent of 16-29 year-old women who had married in the twelve months prior to the 1971 census had also changed their address, with 10 percent of movers crossing a regional boundary. (Boyle, 1998).

In the study area marriage has a close link with migration. Local people always try to be migrated and for this they are interested in marriage with migrated person. Most of the villagers have migrated members in Europe and America by getting married. The migrated households also try to become migrate their local relatives and for this, they are interested marriage relations. Because by get marry, one can be easily migrated in Europe and America. The migrated girls have a lot of demand in local areas. If any girl comes from Europe or America, her relatives and other person try hard to marry her and for this they get preparation of a lot of dowry. Sometimes people who have not enough money or land to give dowry, they give their residential area. If a migrated boy come to local area for marry, fathers of girls try to get him as son-in-law by arranging marriage with his daughter.

In poor families, most of the time marriage is occurs out of kin. They think that, kin marriage creates problems some time and their previous relation becomes damaged. There is no relation between marriage and migration in poor families. They have not enough property to get marry a migrated man, though they are also interested but they can not be engaged with this relation.


From above discussion, it can be said that the villagers give importance in kin marriage for migration and for this they would pay a lot of dowry which is considered as a social custom. Migrated people give importance on social organizations and for this they become engage in kin marriage. By kin marriage, the kin relation overlapped and sometimes the relation become strong and sometime this relation becomes damaged. The main reason of kin marriage is migration. By these marriages they always try to be migrated.

Chapter Five

From early period, men target is to survive in his environment. For this they produce, distribute, and consume goods and services. Every society they has economy, a system for managing these processes. Formal economics study human behaviour which developed in the context of western market economy. The Anthropological study of economics deals with human behaviour which is determined by culture, society, values and social structure. Serena Nanda called (1987) the Anthropological study of economics as “substantive economics”.  An economic system is the part of a socio-cultural system that deals with production, distribution and consumption of goods and services with in a particular society. To maintain economic system land, water, cultivation is very important for society. In modern time people migrate in urban areas and out side his country, their main target is to get better opportunity for himself and his family. Still now Bangladesh is an agricultural country. About 75% of its population directly or indirectly depend on agriculture, besides agriculture some industrial good and foreign remittances have effects on its economy.

In the previous chapter I have discussed the impact of migration on social organization. But to know the impact on the overall village, the impact on economy of the village has been study. In this chapter, I will try to discuss the economy of the village and the relationship between the economy and migration.

In an agricultural country, land plays an important role in its economy. The total area of Puruspal village is 75% acors. About 30 acors are residential area and the rest 45 acors is agricultural land including a fishing place. In the village land is an important property. The poor people have no cultivable land; they are engaged with share cropping. They only have their residential land and its size is very small about 0.07-0.12 acors. The rich people have enough land. Their residential area is 0.15-0.52 acors, but agricultural land is 1-13 acores. They buy this from the poor and middle class households. Poor people sell their land in their crisis moment. The migrated people’s household purchases this land and increase their property. The middle class families have sufficient land for their needs. Their agricultural land size is 0.1-1 acors. The rich people also purchase land out side to village, some time middle class family also sell their land for crisis moment specially to be migrated.

     Land size (in acors)      
     Residential    Agriculture      
Upper    0.15-0.52    1-13      
Middle    0.15-0.3    0.35-1.8      
Lower     0.07-0.19    0.13-0.32   

The village thinks that investment in migration is better than investment in land or agriculture. People who have enough money and need not invest in migration; invest in purchasing land. They think that by migration one can earn a lot of money, which can’t be earned from land.

In Puruspal village, poor and middle class households are engaged in cultivation. Rich households are not interested in cultivation. The poor people have no land, so they are engaged in share cropping with the rich. The middle class families also cultivate their land; some are also engaged in share cropping.
There are two types of share cropping in the village.

First, land is to the landowner’s land and other equipments like seeds, fertilizer, water pump, tractor etc is farmers. Then the crops distribution is 50-50.

Second. Land is to the landowners and he also shares other equipments, then the crops distribution is 2/3 to the land owner’s and 1/3 to the farmer.
In cultivation, labor is one of the most important objects. In production, household supply one or two laborer and other labor come from out side the village or internal migrated people from different districts. There is two types of condition for appoint wage laborer. One is daily waged laborer, whose payment is 90-150 taka with midday meal. Another is monthly or yearly laborer, who’s payment is 14,00-25,00 taka per month and they stay with the farmers household.

The poor people are bound to cultivate, because they have no other income source. If they have chance, they give up cultivation. They think that, if they are engaged with agriculture, their offspring will also be engaged in agriculture and thus they will never live a good life. So they make their son migrated. The middle class families are sometimes bound to be engaged in agriculture, because the produced crops to support their family very well. If they don’t produce, then their family will fall in economic crisis. They always search chance to be migrate and their target is to migrated in Middle East, because it needs comparatively amount of money. If they get chance to Europe and America, they sell their land. Their offspring doesn’t like to be engaged in agriculture and if they become successful, they give up cultivation. The rich households have enough land but they are careless about cultivation. Their target is to increase property. Most of the rich household doesn’t mortgage their land to the poor for farming. So their land becomes barren. They have enough money but they don’t use it in productive sector. They use it for their households’ consumption and increasing property. In Puruspal village 39 households are engaged in agriculture, among then 22 households are share cropper and 17 households cultivate own land. Some rich households who have an old man are also engaged in cultivation and its member is only 7, but they don’t work in field, they appoint laborer and give some land to share cropper.


Household    Number    % in total household      
Share-cropper    22    19.45      
Self cultivator    17    15.04      
Rich    7    6.19      
Total    36    100   

In Puruspal, principal crop is paddy. It grows two times in a year and these are Aman and Boro. Water is very needed for both cultivations. But there is no water pump in the village. People depend on natural water specially rain. Some times they use shallow pump for water supply. Though people depends on rain, it causes flood and sometime rain does not occur in due time. For this the crops production become hampered. Villagers informed me that from last two years, they do not collect crops because of advance and long time flood and thus they were failed.

In modern time, business is another important job. It performs an important role between producer and Consumer. According to Marxism, they are one of the surpluses misappropriated. Some time they create demand in market for their own interest. In Puruspal village 22 household are engaged in business, six are in the village and 16 are in center market of Thana. In village, shops are near to the main road of the village and these are small grocery shops. Others are different types of shops in the center market (Beanibazar). Beside four shops owner in village, rest households are also migrated. In the village to maintain household one member doesn’t migrate. So these people need a place to sit for. For this these members of households engage themselves in business. But these shops are not profitable. They maintain their household by the money which their migrated members send to him and they are depended on these money. For the profession they enjoy a status of a business man.

Types of Business:

Types    No of households    Percentage (%)      
Grocery    13    59.09      
Wood    2    9.09      
Cloths & Shoes    6    27.27      
Trading     1    4.55      
Total    22    100   

Some people of the study area are engaged in carpeting and some households live on the help of the rich. The people who are carpenter have no agriculture land; they have only their residential land. Most of them are young and does not like to cultivate. They earn 80 to 150 taka daily and some times they earn 200 to 300 taka for 1-3 days. They have to maintain their household by this money. The number of total carpenters of the village is 11. Households depend on the help of the rich villagers and their relatives. These households have no will male person or male person who can earn money. They live on Zakat (religious tax), Sadga (religious payment), and Rich’s help relatives help etc. they have no fixed money for expenditure. Some of them make basket with bamboo and sell it to the rich and collect vegetables from the land of the village. These people have no cultivable land, have only residential land and their number is only four. Other three households are depended on laborer. They are engaged in daily laborer in the village. Some times they are engaged in agriculture as a share cropper. Their income is also small, average 90-120 taka per day and also lives on Zakat, Sadga and the help of the rich.

Other occupation: 

Occupation     No of household    Percentage (%)      
Carpenter     11    61.11      
Depend of help    4    22.22      
Daily laborer    3    16.67      
Total    18    100   
 Source: primary source

In Bangladesh, same scholars conducted study on some villages. Some of them are Peter Bertocci (1970), Arnes & Burden (1977), Anwarulla Chowdhury (1978), B.K.Jahangir (1979), Westergard (1980), V.F. Schendel (1981). They classified the villagers in some group and said that the economy of the villagers turned in to capitalism. They said the agricultural land is used as residential area for its growing population. People are engaged in cultivation and no cultivable land become barren. But in Puruspal village, people don’t like to cultivate, they always try to be migrated and the land becomes barren.

Another thing is that the poor villagers are engaged in agriculture, which is similar to allover the country. Rich people purchase land and engage it in share cropping or cultivate by laborer. But in Puruspal village people at first sell land to migrate. When they earn more money by migrating, they gain a new status. Bertocci (1970) showed that the status of rural people is determined by land. Those who have big amount of land they obtained higher status. But in Puruspal village, the status is determined by not only land but specially by the migrant people. So it can be said that, the source economy of the Puruspal village is migration and agriculture is for the poor for their live.  

Education is called the backbone of a nation. For development, the donors always try to educate the people and for this they establish some schools by some non-government organization (NGO) like, UNICEF, BRAC etc. In Bangladesh the educated ratio is about 56 percent of her total population. But in Puruspal village, the education ratio is 49 percent considering the primary level. In this chapter, I will try to show the effects of international migration on education.

In Puruspal village, there is a primary school and a madrasa (religious organization). These two are attested but on different side of the main road. There are also three mosques in the village, but no secondary of higher secondary school. Villagers send their children in the nearest school of the village, which is in Mathiura village. Student goes there on foot, some who have ability use rickshaw (a three wheel vehicle).

In the primary school, there is only three teachers for 178 students. Three teachers come from different village. One of them stays in a village household. The school is financed by the ministry of education of Government of Bangladesh. There is two building in the school. One is fully made by concrete and other is made by concrete and tin. There have not enough benches for the students to sit. The managing committee informs that, some time villagers afford benches for students to sit. The government donation doesn’t fulfill the demand of the school.

Level of Education:
I have classified the villagers in five groups, which can help me to show the effects of migration. These are uneducated, know how to sign, primary pass, Secondary School Examination (S.S.C.) pass, Higher Secondary school certificate (H.S.C.) pass and Graduate. Now I will discuss this group’s below-

In the village, most of the old people are uneducated; some of them know how to sign. The uneducated is 15% and signed is 85% (including to the Graduate). In early period, an younger villager went goes to school in VataBazar (one of the historical market place of the thana). All households were engaged in agriculture and they produced all the goods, which they need excluding salt and karosin. Household laborers were engaged in production. The head of the household encouraged their son to work on field. For these the children had a little chance to be educated. For these most the aged people are not literate of the village. Some aged people can read and write well, but they are engaged in migration. They have no academic certificate.

Primary level:
In the previous part, I have already discussed about the primary school. Another primary level institution is the “Madrasa”. The madrasa has a multistoried building but it is not fully completed. The upper floor’s are under construction. Students study in the ground floor. It has about 89 students, insider and outsider. Villagers bear all the cost of the madrasa.

In the village 49% people are primary level passed. The young generation all are primary passed. Most of the aged people did not complete primary level. The villagers are very conservative, for this some household engages their children in madrasa. They think, if one of their sons becomes successful in this line, then they will go to haven by their son’s request. The villagers send their children in the mosque at morning to make them know how to read the Quaran, Namaj and other religious activities.

Some household do not give chance to their children to be educated for migration. Some times chance occurs for children to be migrated by brokers. For this the household have to pay a lot of money. The people manage the money and send their children. They think, after completing the graduation, their children would not get job. If they get a job, the salary will be little, by which they can’t sustain. Some primary level student can’t complete their study for economical crisis of their gradient. Most of them are poor household’s children. Their parents can’t offer them all the equipments of study.

Students according to class (Age 6+ to 10)

Class    Boys    Girls    Total      
One     07    09    16      
Two    11    09    20      
Three    07    09    16      
Four    09    10    19      
Five    10    08    18      
Total    44    45    89   
(Source: Monitoring Board, 73 no Puruspal Wasiria Govt. Primary School)

S.S.C. level:
There is no high school in the village. Students go to the nearest high school in “Vatabazar” and P.H.G. high school of Beanibazar. Female students go only Vatabazar School. Some households who have enough money send their boys in Sylhet town for study. The Secondary School Certificate pass people’s ratio is 24.5% of its whole population. There is a big gap between primary pass ratio and S.S.C. pass ratio. This is for two reasons, first and principal is migration and second is the economic crisis of poor. After passing the primary school, the rich and middle class households try to send their son in Europe or America. When a boy gets a chance and failed to go, they don’t give concentration in study. They always try to be migrated. Generally the cost of high school is rather than primary school. The poor people cannot offer their children high school for their economic condition. There is also discrimination between son and daughter’s study. People think that a girl doesn’t need enough study. They will maintain her husband’s household. So they need as much education so that they can manage her husband’s family. For this the S.S.C. pass ratio of women is poor than boys. Some rich and most of the middle class households engage their daughters until marriage. They think that if their daughter become educated, then their marriage would be comparatively easy. They will get migrated husband of Europe or America. Villagers’ thinking is that, daughter is a burden to get a well-known and economically established man for her marriage. In Puruspal village, the poor households have no S.S.C. pass women or girls.

H.S.C. level:
The nearest college of Puruspal is the Beanibazar Government College. It is eight kilometers far from the village. The boys can easily go to the college. Some girls also study there and they move by local vehicles called “Tempoo” (three wheel motor vehicles). There are no women in the village who is engaged with job. The household engages their daughter in college, to get a good and migrated boy for daughter’s marriage. They say that, in previous time migrated man did not look for educated girls for marriage, but now they are looking for educated and physically beautiful and attractive girls for marriage. The H.S.C pas educated ratio of the village is 9.6% where S.S.C is 24.05%. This gap has created for economic crisis of households and migration. This time of S.S.C to H.S.C boys try hard to be migrated and their household support then. The gradient thinks that, their son will not get a good job and if he get, he would not be able to maintain his family well. This time is very good for a boy to earn money. So they encourage interest their son to be migrated.

In Puruspal village, very little people complete their graduation and its ratio is 1.9%. Before completing graduation, some boys are engaged in earning money and girls have to get marriage. Normally the boys try to be migrated, and if they fail, they start business or become unemployed. In the village I have found to households, whose all members are educated. One is Mr. Shakur’s and the others are Mr. Mothiur Rahman’s. Mr. Shakur’s household is traditionally educated. His father was a teacher. He has four adult members in his household, three of them have completed graduation and one has completes her H.S.C examination. All member of Mr. Rahaman live in England and America. His son is pilot and daughter is a doctor. His wife and he also completed H.S.C examination. In occupation he is a businessman and lives in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh.

In British period of the subcontinent, the British had started to make educated the native peoples. One of their targets was to appoint Clark for their official job by small wages. Form that time the English system education began in the subcontinent. In 1921, the University of Dhaka was established in Dhaka city. Form here many Bangladeshi complete their graduation, and the education ratio is increasing. In 1886, M.C. college of Sylhet was established. It is a pioneer institution in Sylhet. Form here many Sylheties complete their higher secondary certificate examination. Their pupil have a lot of contribution in the country. Some people become doctor, lawyer, politician, and businessman, actors and so on. The educational condition was increasing and poor people tired their best to engage their children with education.


Now the educational condition in Sylhet is comparatively decreasing. In Puruspal village the household’s target is to be migrated for better life. The gap of educated ratio of each level shows that people are not interested in education. Mr. Islam Uddin has two sons and they are continuing in primary school. Mr. Islam has only his residential land and he live by a small shop in village. He informed me that, if anybody send both of his son in England or America, he will give the sender his all land because he has no money to give them. From the childhood the boys started to be familiar with migration. Their mentality grows with it. So when they become grown up they try to be migrated and for this they give up their education. Most of the households of the village have not sufficient care about their children’s education. The rich people appoint private tutor for their children, but when they get chance they send them to Europe or America. In the village there are no people who became migrated for education. They only migrate for better earning. Some households are interested in education, but they are becoming bound to be migrated themselves or their children for better economic opportunities. So in conclusion, it can be said that migration hampered the education sector of the village.

Chapter Seven

Migration can make changes in the kinship network, occupation, and marriage system, income level of both poor and rich. For this, their life style is also changing. In my study area people are migrating only for more income and for this the total society is changing. The migrated people would have better opportunities in those countries and needs to stay there as a citizen. For get them citizenship, they engage them in marriage especially kin marriage. They sometime engage them in marriage out side the kin and for this they have to pay a lot of dowry as the security and consider it as a social custom.

Through migration, one may earn a lot of money and he or she has the right to spend it in his/her favorable sector i.e. individual can take decision by himself what ever he does. But the individual’s psychology is defined by his environment and he cannot take decision by overcoming his society. The migrated people always try to engage their relatives or local people as migrated. For this they engage in kin marriage. They think, if they engage themselves in kin marriage, their relatives will be migrated and they can easily maintain their relation and both of them will enjoy same economic condition.

Although villagers gave importance on family background and descent line for marriage, but now for migration they do not give importance on this. Now people always try to be migrated and for this they don’t look for the bridge or bridegroom’s family background and descent line. They only give importance on economy of a family. The rich families have enough property; they can offer the dowry and be engaged in marriage for migration. Normally the bridegroom receives the dowry but in the marriage for migration, bridge or bridegroom who is migrated receives the dowry especially the migrated citizen bridegroom receives comparatively more dowry than man.

In the study area, poor extended families have turned into nuclear families, middle class families try to maintain their extended families because they thought that it is respected in the society. The rich families maintain their extended family because all their family members are migrated and they need to maintain their local family, for this one of their family members doesn’t migrate and he takes care all of their property. If it becomes nuclear family, then they will be fallen in the problem about their local property. For this their families remain extended.

Although the people are migrating, they give importance on their locality and social organizations (kinship, family and marriage), the kin marriage for migration focus on it. If they do not focus on social organization they will not be engaged in kin marriage and will not visit their village. The rich and migrated people help the poor villagers’ different times and bear the cost of mosque and madrasa which helps to establish their awareness about the village.

The economy of the village is depending on remittance and people are giving up cultivation. The rich and migrated people does not invest their money in productive sector, they invest it in unproductive sector as like housing, luxurious goods, increasing property and so on. The middle class families are engaged both in cultivation and migration. When they get chance to be migrated, they sell their land to bear the migration cost. The poor families have no other income source, for this, they are bound to cultivate. Some poor families, whose earning member is young in age, are engaged as a carpenter and live on it. The rich people have no care about their agricultural land and they do not give the land to share croppers. For this the agricultural land becomes barren.

The villagers are always trying to be migrated themselves or their young family members. They do not give importance on their children’s education. The only educational institution of the village is a primary school and a madrasa. In the school the total students are 89 in current year and their attendance in the school is too poor. Sometimes children are engaged in migration by broker, and then the villagers try to send their boys in Europe or America, though their children are engaged in primary education. From previous discussion, I showed that there is a lot of gap between S.S.C, H.S.C and Graduation level. These gap has been occurred only for migration, because the young people always try to e migrate and for this they give up their education. Another thing is the girl’s education in rich and middle class families is not bad. The parents want to arrange marriage of their girls with migrated people and migrated people like educated girls. For this they engage their daughter in education. In poor families, the parents want that their children continue their study, but they have not enough money to bear the cost of education. For this they engage their children in works.

From the above discussion, I can say that Ravenstein’s hypothesis about migration is not fully appropriate in the village; because though people are migrating mainly for economic reasons, but they are moving to long distance, Ravenstain says that most migrant are adult and families rarely migrate out of their country of birth, but in the study area, not only adult but also children are becoming migrated and if they get chance the families also engage themselves in migration.

Behavioralism approach says that individual makes his decision but individual is not out of society. He maintains deep relation with his society so he can’t take his decision himself. He takes his decision in contest of his society. For this he maintain kin marriage and always try to make migrant his relatives or kin. By kin marriage social network theory of migration can be explained. For migration, people’s first target is to get marry with migrated citizen especially kin relatives. By the marriage, people are migrating in different countries of Europe and America. So the social network theory of migration is applicable in analyzing the migration system of the village.

There is a lot of impact of migration in the study area which is been discussed. People are giving up cultivation, and education which is the most important aspects in modern time to establish a society. People are depending on remittance for their living which makes them dependent on the migrated country. In the time of globalization, people are migrating in global labor market to sell their labor and earn a lot of money. They spend it in their luxurious living and does not invest it in productive sector which makes the local economy as blocked and make the village as a dependent and maintain core and periphery relation, though there is no direct explanation of core country. But they have blocked the economy in local areas, which is described by wallerstein in 1990. So in my study area the dependency theory of wallerstein is highly applicable and the application of this theory is strongly justified. 


 Operational definition

Migration: In the study I have consider migration as to move one country to another.

Class: I have classified the villagers in three classes based on their economic expenditure.
These are Poor, Middle and Rich.

Outside Kin Marriage: By this I want to understand the marriage which does not occur in relatives or kin.

Peri-urban Village: urban is generally mean the city. By peri-urban, I want to mean a village which has a lot of characteristic of an urban area. I have consider the study village as peri-urban, because it has good communication system both for vehicles and phone, luxurious houses with air-condition, which is generally found in urban area.

Social Organization: Encyclopedia of Social and cultural Anthropology defined social organization as “to the loosely to refer to the sum of activities performed in a given social context”. In my study I have consider it Family, Kinship and Marriage.      

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