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To investigate the health outcome of sanitation related practices among the urban migrants.

Chapter- One
Internal migration i. e. population mobility with in a country may have important socio-economic consequences for the country as well as whole for the area of origin and destination and for migrants themselves. The migrant’s arrival in the city rarely isolates them from the constraints and support of close personal relations. Generally those who leave their homes to find work in cities following friends and relatives from their home towards to find work in cities and village, relying upon them for aid in finding employment and a place to live. Despite the modification of kinship and other traditional supportive mechanism to fit upon conditions, many migrants experience great difficulties in adopting. The source of pressure is often influenced the migrants personality. Sometimes migrants are too unable to adjust to the altered environments.

Now in Bangladesh the growth of urbanization mostly depends on migration. People came from rural areas as migrant. For this they have to face difficulty to adjust newly socio-cultural situation and different competition of urban settlement. Most of the migrants live in urban area for living facilities. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world and at present approximately 19.5% of the population lives in urban cities. Among them, a major population of people is migrated. In urban areas most of people live in very unhealthy situation. The density of population in urban areas is increasing rapidly at an annual rate of 5.3% and is pushing the already inadequate public services to its limit. Primary health care has improves area the last decade but the problems remain severe and are exacerbated by a shortage of medical staff and facilities. The main types of disease are parasitic, diarrhea and communicable yet still the governments spending as a percentage of GNP is less than 1%. This problem is further exacerbated by the fact that peremial flooding and excessive rain has meant that much of the country has suffered from waters borne disease and  sanitation.

In Bangladesh rivers, ponds and pools are everywere. Some pond or rivers where people go bathing is used for defecating and washing clothes. NGOs access to tube wells within 150 meters is in some areas less than 60%. Because of the lack of ability to manage such vast amount of water and the inability to provide adequate sanitation services many communities faced with severe problems, living in a urban setting with people of different backgrounds migrants also faces problem in those respects a intensive investigation is essentials to find out the social significance of sanitation practices on the migrated people of study area.

Statement of the problem:
Choosing a research with a topic ‘sanitation practices of migrated people of urban area-an anthropological exploration’ of a frontier of migrated community of a Badambagicha area the research consider specific reason which led to reflect the topics.
1. Sanitation system is a one of the major component of environmental health. To keep the environment healthy for human habitation and health purpose sanitation is needed. Because sanitation system is related to whole way of life.
2. In Bangladesh, about 33% of the people have hygienic latrines. Every eight seconds a child dies of water related disease. In Bangladesh, the water and sanitation situation is stark:
o    1.2 billion People need access to clean water supply.
o    3 billion people are without sanitation facilities.
Many people in Bangladesh resort to using unclean and unhygienic water for all aspects of life, including washing, drinking and cooking. Such practices may be directly responsible for spreading endemic disease like diarrhea and worm infection.
3. The other problem of rural/urban sanitation is housing, drainage and animal waste, sanitation of public eating and market places. Unfortunately the houses are not properly planned; these have developed in a haphazard manner. Majority of the people uses open field for sanitation purpose. The garbage and night soil are left here and there resulting in the pollution of environment.
4.  people face some adaptation problem after migration. Most of migrants earn little, for this reason they have to choose colony to live where house rent is low. Among those problems are housing problem, sanitation problem, common kitchen, overcrowding etc. slum dwellers of Badambagicha mostly found living within those conditions.
5. Most people of our country are not aware of the  sanitation. Because most people of them are not concern and almost known little about health hazards, environment pollution due to the sanitation. The people of this study area we also unaware of this problem. These are the statement of the problem, these characteristics inspire to select this topic.

Scope and importance of the research:
Migration is a coomon phenomenon all over the world. For better living and searching survival means people are moving one place to another. May people from different places of the country migrate in sylhet for livelihood.
Scope: in Badambagicha at Sylhet where lots of migrants lives. Who lives with their family and some migrate alone but live together with others people. They help each others to study here. Thus they try to take some strategy to adjust with residence. This study has been attempted to draw a picture of the sanitation practices of migrated pople of this area. As we kbnow sanitation is related to the environment, health, housing, food habits, control of *** reservoirs of infection, occupation , disease i.e. the whole way of life. For this reason, we may scopes to explain the livelihood of the peoples o study area.
Importance: a proper sanitiaon system is performing and important role in the society. If anyone wants to accelerate health status of a society he/she has to explore sanitation practices with the other health care practices. Migrants people have to face some problems to adjust the newly settings of urban area. On the content of this situation it is very difficult to fulfill their nccessarry physical needs. So it is very importance of this research to concentrate the sanitation practices. From this research the future rese4arhc of this field (urban anthropology) can be found the socio-cultural condition of the  migrated people. The raw use of materials may be an excellent source of urban medical anthropology.  

Rationale of the study:
The research ‘water and sanitation behavior among the  migrated people in urban area’ is a newly research on urban medical anthropology. In Bangladesh very few research have done from this context. But it is very much important to think about the  people, who are migrated from village to urban areas. In urban area most of the migrated people are . They leave their village by some crucial causes. Most of the time they loss the living entity   in the village area, for this, when those people are migrated to the urban areas, they have to face some problems to adjust this newly settings in an urban area. On the context of this situation, it is very difficult to full fill their necessary physical needs. So, it is very rationality of this research to concentrate above this problems and it can be very valuable document about this context. On the other hand, the research can be valuable from the following perspective. From this research, the future researcher of this field (urban anthropology) can be found the socio-cultural condition of the  migrated people in urban area. And they has also understand about the correlation of health situation and specific urban environmental setting of  people. This research can be very rational; if when our government has keep any step to increasing health condition of  people in urban areas then it can be suggest something from this context. On the other hand, any well-fare institution or any other NGO can be used this research paper to in-depth realization of condition of  migrated people in urban area. In above this case this research can be varying rational in this field. This research is probably the first of this field in term of the methodological uniqueness it’s followed.

Objectives of the study:
Broad Objective
#To investigate the health outcome of sanitation related practices among the urban  migrants.
Specific Objective
#To know the process of migration and the way of adaptation of the migrated people in an urban ecological setting.
#To find out the different water related behavior of migrated people.
#To know the way of sanitation practices among migrants.
#To find out the common health problems that is directly or indirectly related to the use of water and sanitation.

Theoretical framework:
Every research follows a may by which it can be developed its thinking that is research chould follow its corresponding theory, because of its analysis. In this work I have tried to find the sanitation practices of migrated people trhough some theoretical perspectives.

An important theoretical perspective in the study of role of migration in urbanization process is the human ecological approach. Anthropologists have attempted to examine the relationship of population movement to socio-environmental process in terms of the concept “ecological complex” which broadly including population, social organization and technology (POET system). The outstanding representatives of this approach are Hawley (1971), Duncun (1969), Schnore (1969, Mcgee (1967) and Lampard (1965). The human ecological approach is a theory of change of a community as a eco-social system in terms of the interaction of this four component elements. This perspective has been the logical development from the ecological doctrine of the Chicago School led by Burgess and Park (1928). In the study, ‘The practices of sanitation among  migrated people in urban area’ here consider city may be thought of as ecosystem which require energy to maintain their structure and which are segmented in natural areas.  people have migrated in a ecological complex area by some push factors and adapt that place by changing living practices.
In the ecological model health is regarded as the result of successful adaptation to environmental challenge and disease the outcome of the failure to adapt. Medicine both curative and preventive, is seen here as a cultural device to restore optimal adaptation.

Sanitation practices are related with environment and health hazards. For understanding ecological consequences, the researcher employed A.P. Vayda’s ecological explanation. He illustrated human interaction with environment in his writing “methods and explanation in the studyt of human actions and their environmental effects” (Events, causes, and explanation; studies in anthropology and human ecology). He emphasized ideas values and ideals of human thinking on environment. He also argued that most environmental consequences of human actions are unintended. He emphasized that caused chais constituted in itself caused explanation. Human actions also can impact the environment. In “progressive contentalization: Methods for research in human ecology”   Vayda focused on significant interaction and explained that as a progressively widers or dense content. From analyzing this concept, it may be found that why different changes have been happening, who is doing what, why they are doing it and etc.
It may be method for explaining environmental and health hazards of “sanitation practices”. It is ecological consequences; in  sanitation human excreta fell on water on soil which penetrates on the ground water. When people of that area take this water they will be suffered from health problems which can also caused environmental hazards. It means that it has been occurred human activities or people environment interaction.

As I was interested on health phenomenon I selected the sanitation practices of migrated people. For my personal interest in medical nanthropo9logy I have choosed this topic related urban medical anthropology. My supervisor accelerated this interest.

1st visit:
My 1st visit to study area was on 25th December 2004 . as my research area called Badambagicha is near to my house. It was easy for me to go there. Although it was unknown area but the people are very welcoming manners. First of all, it was quite difficult for me to search for the migrated people. After few hours later, I had found some specific colony where the migrated people have lived. My first respondent named Rahima khatun, she helped me lots, also has 16 years old son namded mizan who was my key informant. Through mizan I was able to continue my observation and rapport building. The people of the study area thought I am a NGO or public health worker. Later they understood me was a student.
2nd visit
My second visit started in 3rd January 2005. my second visit to live study area comprises the main fieldwork of the study. In my first phase of work I had to make good relation with the respondents which was favorable for me to get information from them. I tried to work the whole day in my second phase of work. I emphasized on my observation very much to know the real fact. Here ones officials of BRAC school named Md. Abul Hasam, who helped me lots to know about the proper health situation of study area infact he helped me to collect information about the Badambagicha area from the public health office of sylhet. To observe the importance sanitation system of my respondents which hurt me lots. 

Operational definition:
Health: health is a state of complete physical , mental and social wellbeing and not merely absence of disease or infirmity, sothat each citizen can lead a socially and economically productive life. (WHO, Community medicine and public Health, P3)

Disease: Diseases refer to the doctors’ perspective on ill health. This view is based on scientific rationality and assumes that diseases are universal in form, progress and content.
Safe water supply means withdrawal or abstraction of either ground or surface water as well as harvesting of rainwater; its subsequent treatment, storage, transmission and distribution for domestic use.

Sanitaion: Sanitation means human excreta and sludge disposal, drainage and solid waste management.
Sector means the safe water supply and sanitation sector.

Migration: The word ‘Migration’ has been derived from the latin Migrate’ which means to change one’s residence.Literally it means the settlement or shifting of an individuals from one cultural area or place of habitation to another,more or less permanently.In the International Encyclopedia of social science, migration has been defined as the relatively permanent movement of persons over a significant distance.

Ecology: Ecology is a essentially the study of how the energy in sunlight is captured and stored but plants in different natural environment and how various communities of plants and animals make use of that energy aided and abetted by one another and by inorganic factors such as soils rainfall and other environmental conditions system by which communities of organizes capture exchange and uses energy are known as ecosystem. 

The research is done considering the method of network analysis. People live in a city as an ecological setting and their relationship among other persons and institutions are in the system of network. In this research ‘participant observation’ method is also be followed. However to conduct this research some specific anthropological methods such as case study method, focus group discussion, checklist, emic etic and synchronic and diachronic approach has used for data collection and data analysis. This could be discussing as below:

The study has carried out in a particular region of Sylhet city. The main area of the research in a ward, which is identify as a ward no-7 of Sylhet Pourashava. In this ward single region has be selected, the name of that area is Badambagicha.
1. Many  migrated people have been setting in this area.
2. the area most affected by sanitation related problems of sylhet region
3. In sylhet ,there has done few works for sanitation practices.but  this region is not out of danger. Badambagicha like that kind of area where the sanitation related works have not extended properly.
4. Water supply of this area is not satisfactory. Large number of households are drinking and cooking and bathing with this water. In this respect, great health hazards will be occurred. If there are not take any action for sanitation practices in this region.
5. people of this area are not aware about sanitation related diseases.  In this research it was observed.
The above mentioned charachteristics were considering for selecting this focus of study.

The sample of respondent will selected by follow the method of random sampling with the context of respondent’s occupation. Information and data were  collected from them. One person was taken from one household.

Respondents     Sample size     Percentage (%)      
Male    25    70      
    15    30      
Total    40    100
Source: Fieldwork. 2004-2005

Tools for the Management of Field Notes: conducting the fieldwork the researcher will use various research tools, such as:

Field Diary:  A diary will kept during the data collection period on which collection of data, personal experiences, field situation and the degree of relationship and observable phenomena will elaborate written.
Camera and Recorder: A camera and a recorder will always keep during the fieldwork period. Camera will be used for documented in vague materials, which was imposable to clarify in written description. Again to keep to continuity of spontaneous description, the researcher will maintain a recorder faiching the problem of listening and understanding.
Field Note: The researcher will regularly maintain field notes in a description manner from the collected information.

In any research work, collection of data is of vital importance. In this research data were collected from different sources. But all the sources can be grouped into primary and secondary sources.
Data collected directly from village people and the field observations were primary sources. The data collected from Ruppur through interview, questionnaire, personal census and observations, case study, life history and oral history were under this category. Information or data were collected from the respondents directly considering individuals and households as units.
Different newspapers, periodicals, research works, scientific and social research journals (world Arsenic news letter, Asia Arsenic Network etc.) were taken as secondary sources of information to know the State-of-the-Art. These were considered as indirect or secondary sources in the present research work. In research work this type of information was little. In fact, some pieces of information were used in determining the nature of the social problem of the current research.

Methodology is so much important for doing any kinds of research. It is just like a path and by following this path, researcher conduct with the respondent and another people of study area. By walking this path researcher find out the related perception and reality about selected issues of study in any specific study area. Here I describe those methodologies which I followed in my study:

·Observation: Observation will the main technique of data collection of this study. Because as an outsider it was not possible to participate fully with the people. I have tried to observe the situation, how migrants made-up themselves according to the situation.
·Key Informant: Sometimes direct observation was not possible, so the remaining source of information will the recalls of individuals. Who are participant of the study area. Some peoples are living in the village year after, who migrate themselves from the place of origin .
·Interview: Informal interviewing method, as a conversation that helped to conduct the research. I did not follow any kind of pre-determined questions so that the interviewee could narrate his/her own experiences in the manner he/she liked it to. I have maintained questionnaire which was a combination of both open and close ended questions.
·Case study: case study can give a clear idea about any issues. So, case study techniques also have been taken here.
·Collection of life histories: According to burgess, collection of historical materials is life history which includes much autobiographical material presented informant’s own word.15 Life history is taken here as a major techniques in this study.
The other techniques of data collection of the study were focus group discussion, collection of family history. And several tools have been used, such as diary, recorder and field note for keeping the information gained from the field.

Literature Review
To prepare this research, some related books and article were studied; also these books and articles were completed by some prominent social scientist, which are following the aspects of urban anthropology, some papers were written from the aspect of medical anthropology.  Specifically, some reports written from migration and health aspect, which are more concentrate on the Bangladesh perspective. From this research viewpoint, here including of those books and articles summarization.

Richard   Basham is a prominent social scientist in the field of urban anthropology. Urban anthropology: The cross-cultural studies of complex society (1978) are an important book in urban studies. Including introduction and within other eight chapters he covered this book by some special urban perspectives. This book is a product of more than decade of interest and research in urban anthropology. He was initially attracted to the study of anthropology by its cross –cultural perspective of human culture. This book is   discuss some important things of urban phenomenon such as a significant body of information on rural urban migration, the function of kinship in the city, the adaptation and adjustment of human in densely populated environment and the effect of urban cultural pluralism of social stratification.             

 In the context of review of this book, here selects some special chapter in that research perspective. Chapter-1, the study of urban and complex societies, in this chapter Basham generally discuss about some urban studies and how urban anthropology have been developed as a sub-field of socio-cultural anthropology. In the social science, firstly urban studies were carrying by sociology hen in the mid 20th century anthropologists had more concentrate about this studies. Urban research had developed by some approaches, Such as the Chicago school of urban ecology, community study approach and interactionism. In the ecological approach here, consider city as a ecosystem which required energy to maintain its structure. It is very much more important research approach in urban studies. Community study approach and interactions are also more important in urban anthropological research.  
 On the context of these approaches urban anthropology have developed its methodological framework to changing its traditional pattern of research of anthropology. Here also concentrate in the perspective of statistical data collection and the analysis of quantities perspectives
Chapter-3 rural-urban migration and growth of the cities, here Basham elaborate analysis of migration and the growth of the cities, people migrated in the city by traditional fashion and by some causes, which are called the primary urbanization. In the context of worldwide migration of rural to urban, here focus two-type migration the ‘push’ factor and the ‘poll’ factor. People are migrated   on the causes of ‘push’ factors, its occure to rural pressure to leave his\her village residence, and ‘pull’ factors people leave their village by attraction city’s facilities. In the situation of rural-urban migration, there are four type migration beyond the push and poll factors, such as sedenfary, circulatory,   oscillatory, and linear. Population movement can also depend on some cultural, economical and personal motivation. Economic motivations rank first among reasons ordinary advance for urban   or any form of migration.                                                     
‘Social formation of Dhaka city’ is a most important study in urban perspective. This book is written by Kamal Siddique, Sayeda Rowshanqadir, Sitara Alamgir and Sayeedul Huq. It is sociological work focusing on the characteristics and aspirations of, and interactions among various important class and group of people living in present day Dhaka city.
The book had completed by eight chapters, from those chapter here consider three chapter which are most relevant for this particular research. Chapter five ‘the formal   sector  of Dhaka city’, chapter six ‘the informal sector  of Dhaka city’, and chapter seven ‘beggars, prostitutes, and criminals of Dhaka city’      
In the chapter five, formal sector of  people of in Dhaka city, here Siddique and  other defined the formal sector  as that section of the  manual working class population who receive regular  weekly/monthly salaries/wages are not   self employed by a formal organization. The formal sector  quite expectedly fall for behind respondent of the GHS in the term of income, properly education, employment              
Opportunities and in the degree of access to basic human needs such as food, shelter, clothing, education and health care. On the contrary, they were generally the victim of gender discrimination, sexual abuse and over work without proper compensation.

Chapter six informal sector of , the writers are defined that the  who are either self-employed or even it wage     employed, on an irregular basis and without any legal binding on the employers.  To study those group of people, they are divided  five groups of  people under informal sector  of Dhaka city, such as the floating people of Dhaka  city; the female headed households   among floating people of Dhaka city; the tokaies of Dhaka city; the domestic  servants of Dhaka city; the rickshaw puller  of Dhaka city. They    are studied by the location of their residence, which are conducted of the conditions of squatter population.

In the chapter six, beggars, prostitutes  and criminals of Dhaka city.  In this chapter the writers are discuss  about  beggars, prostitutes, and criminal as Marxist social class analysis lumpan proletariat The discuss  that the lumpan proletarian constitutes an  productively  employed social layer outside the working class In the Dhaka city these lumpan proletariat are come from the village of other districts of the country.
From the study of this book , here comment that social formation of Dhaka city is a very important urban study, it is completed from the direct research, to collect primary data and here also concentrate  on the  social aspect of  the respondents. But it is failed to understand the qualitative information. For  this  the works of Siddique  and other does not say as the similar of anthropological work.           

The most important book of this study is Medical anthropology in ecological perspective[1984] written by an Mcelroy and  Patriciak Townsend. The major theme of the book is that the distribution of diseases overtime and space in directly related  to a population role  in  its ecosystem .A community health closely reflects the nature of its adaptation to the environment.

From this book, here select some chapter from the context of this research. In the first chapter from they trace the linkages in this system approach constructing a general framework for thinking about how health, community and environment are related. In the chapter-3, they discuss the process of adjustment and change that enable a population of migration itself in given environment. Because environment and ecological relationship change over time, adaptation is a continual process. In this chapter, they says that the medical systems are one aspect of cultural adaptation to health problems, cultural customs, beliefs, and taboos also have an indirect effect on health.

‘Stress and diseases’ chapter-7, the writers discuss in this chapter that the stress and adoption are closely related concept in medical anthropology, for stressful conditions in the environment are often a stimulus for adaptive responses. Stress may arise when ecosystems are disrupted by natural disasters such as famines and earthquakes. Stress also in present in ecosystems that steadily exert pressures on human adaptive capacities, for example, high attitude regions or extremely hot climates. Stress comes from   deprivation as well; the health profile of arctic hysteria examines the role of calcium and vitamin D deficiency.

Anita and et-al written a book from the medical anthropological prospective. The name of their book is ‘Applied health research manual: Anthropology of health and health care’. It is a applied oriented book from the perspective of medical anthropology. Towards anthropology, they prepared this book by 24
Module. First twelve modules, and module 18A  and 23, have been develop for the applied health oriented. At the beginning of each module, a selection of relevant literature is listed. Students are expected to read the literature before attending a session. Because these modules also prepared for the international course in anthropology of health and health care, which is first organized in Bankok.

Modules 13 to 29, except modules 18 and 13, have been adapted from designing and conducting health systems research projects. They bear responsibility for the adaptation, which has entailed a change in focus towards anthropology and qualitative research in several modules.

 Anita and other’s book are very important in study of applied health research, and it is not very important in the academic studies. However, in this research this book is more support to understand some concept and analytical technique.

‘Peasant perceptions: Sanitation’ is a article for ‘rural study series’ volume-1 publish in 1992, writer is unknown. It is more important article for water related behavior, in this article writer show the peasant water sources and their different purposes of water using pattern. It is a qualitative analytical writing but data presentation is not so well. What are the actual or specific condition of peasant water sources and water using behavior not found in easily without more concentration in this writing?

‘Environment protection in developing countries’ (1993), edited by Najma Heptulla. It is a more relevance book of this study and from this book here consider a article which is ‘presentation of environmental pollution entire diseases through low cost sanitation’ written by Bindeshwar Pathak. This article is written on context of Indian perspective and shows that the sanitation condition among  Indian is very miserable, for this most of the sanitation related diseases attack them and they always victimize for their low cost sanitation. To improve this situation he proposes some path how to minimize that situation. It is a more important book for its analytical perspectives. However, this witting was not conducted by considering field studies, most of the data of this article collect from secondary sources.
Rural Development: Putting the Lost First (1989) written by Robert Chambers it is a pure applied anthropological books. From this book, here consider the ‘chapter five’ for better understanding the criteria of  people. In this chapter Chambers discusses the  condition as more theoretical perspectives. He analysis here outsider perceptions about  and what are their basic criteria of the  people. It is more important book for this research perspective and provide more help to better understanding about migrants  in urban area.

Chapter 3
Socio-economic profile of the study population:

In Badambagicha area, there are different pattern of background migrated People, most of them come from different part of village area of Bangladesh. They have various pattern of way of lifestyle, various pattern of culture. In this Badambagicha area, the migrated people have different kind of economical background, different pattern of socio cultural background.    

Previous Socio-economic Pattern
Migrated people of Badambagicha area come from different part of Bangladesh. They have been carrying various type culture feature, their language, religious activities, previous social position, food habit etc. are different in contest of other people. They have different type of family background.
Previous family pattern
There are three types family pattern of  migrated people in Badambagicha area. Most of the migrated people of this area come from joint family, within this family type they live with jointly. Their father mother, brother sister and other kin members all of them share one Chula. All of them have equal share in their agricultural production (most of them were farmer) and get equal services from their family. In the Badambagicha area, some migrated people have other type of family background, such as extended and conjugal family. In following table and chart shown the ratio of different type of family background of  migrated people in Badambagicha area.            
Table:   Previous family pattern

Different type of family     Frequency    Percent          Cumulative
Conjugal family    4    10.0    10.0      
Extended family    14    35.0    45.0      
Joint family    22    55.0    100.0      
Total    40    100.0        
Source: Research work, Course No- ANP 400, 2004-2005.

Religious Background:
Migrated people have different religious background, majority of migrated people come from Muslim religion and they have different pattern in area to area. All of them are Muslim Sunni, but they have particular ideology in terms of their particular follower such as Pir. In their previous home society, their religious position depended on family background and their economic position in their society. Most of Muslim migrated people do not practices their religious activities in regularly. But on Friday as Juma day they always go to the mosque for Juma prayer. Most of the areas’ people did not face any discrimination in mosque in the time of prayer, but some cases shows that there has different position for different group of people. Majority Muslim migrated did not participate in any activities of religion, they were absent in these occasion. In the Badambagicha area their are some other religious migrated people, 17% of them Hindu and only two person are Upajati, though they practices Hindu religious activities. All of the Hindu migrated people come from lower class position of their society. In the following table and chart shown the ratio of the different group of religious migrated people.     

Table: Previous religious position of respondents

Religion    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Hindu    7    17.5    17.5      
Muslim    31    77.5    95.0      
Other    2    5.0    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       
Source: Research Work, Course No- ANP 400, 2004-2005.

4.1.3 Social position of migrated people:

In their village area, migrated people were belonging in a particular social position. To being in a particular society they always contact with other people. This position was create by achieve or ascribe. Those people have strong economical position and strong family background they have upper level position. All of the area of Bangladesh, there are mostly seen the same situation.   
In the Badambagicha area, migrated people have three level of social position. These are upper level, middle level and lower level. Most of the migrated people (67.5%) of Badambagicha area come from lower level social position. In their previous home place, lower level people have not participation in any social activities. In the following table and chart shows the different position of social level.

Table: Previous social position of respondents

Level of position    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Lower level    27    67.5    67.5      
Middle level    10    25.0    92.5      
Upper level    3    7.5    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       
Source: Source: Research Work, Course No- ANP 400, and 2004-2005.

Previous Food habit
Migrated people had different pattern of food culture in their previous home place .Different area of Bangladesh, there has different pattern of food habit , these food habit are related their occupation level , Most of the agriculture based family food are supply from their own production. These farming  family’s daily meal had very different from other occupational people . They daily complete their breakfast by rice or rice made other food , such as  panta vath , mori , khai , rich-cakes etc. The breakfast of this type family had  different by age based and sex  based . Children and male person always favor hot rich and female person take panta vath , if not they take other thin food (chira, mori etc). Other family those are not directly related with farming suppose rickshaw puller and small businessmen, their food habit are different then farming family. Most of the time they take their breakfast by ruti. In these family elder people take one time by rice such as in the lunch time, but in supper they complete by ruti.  
Previous Economical Background
In the Badambagicha area, migrated people have different background of economic position. Most of the migrated people were farmer in their previous home place, but all of them had no cultivable land in their village. They work in others peoples’ land, sometime they sell their labor and sometime they produce by sharing. Data shows that the majority people have land, but all of them had no equal position in their home place. All of the areas of Bangladesh have no equal land value. In the low land area of Bangladesh, most of the land affected by flood, the people of these area produce in their land in one time of a year. Migrated people of these areas had land but not satisfaction from their output. Migrated people have different type occupation in their previous home place, such as farmer, rickshaw puller, small businessman, day laborer etc. majority migrated people (50%) have farming background, 17.5% of migrated people was small businessman, these type of occupational background focuses on the following table and chart.  

Table: Previous occupation of respondents

Different occupation    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Small farmer (no land)    8    20.0    20.0      
Small farmer (have land)    12    30.0    50.0      
Land labor    4    10.0    60.0      
Rickshaw puller    5    12.5    72.5      
Small businessman    7    17.5    90.0      
Other occupation    4    10.0    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       
Source: Source: Research Work, Course No- ANP 400,
2004 - 2005.

In the Badambagicha area, the migrated people had different type of assets in their home place, such as crops land, house land (basat bari), house (ghar), ponds, bamboo garden, domestic animals etc. There are different types of land owning pattern, majority of the migrated people had land but above one-acre land had only twenty-five percents people. In the following table focuses the ratio of landowner of migrated people.    

Table: Previous assets (land) of respondents

Assets(land)    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
No land    13    32.5    32.5      
One acre    17    42.5    75.0      
above one acre    10    25.0    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       
Source: Source: Research Work, Course No- ANP 400,

In their previous home place most of the migrated people had different pattern of socio-cultural and economical background position, they are settle is this newly form settlement area and also share with some particular urban features in order to continue their life-living practices in urban area.
Geographical location
By geographical position, Badambagicha area is situated in the northwestern part of the Sylhet city. It is about five-mile distance from the zero zone of the Sylhet city. In the Badambagicha area, there are ten local areas. Which are Neharee Para, Surma Recidencial Area, Badambagicha Ghat, University Area, Coloni No-2, Brahman Shasan, Duskir, Ghoya Para, Kali Para, Coloni No-3, Boro Bari etc. Some local area covered the Badambagicha area, such as south eastern part covered by Neharee Para; south western part covered by Badambagicha Ghat; western part covered by University area: whole northern part covered by Coloni No-2 and Duskin; and eastern part is Coloni No-3.
The out-sider area of Badambagicha, in the northern side of Badambagicha area is Dolia, Western side is Kumar Goung, southern side is Surma river of and eastern side Pathuntula area are situated. In the Badambagicha area most of the migrants settle in the Coloni No-3 area, colony of No1 (near Coloni No-3) and Coloni No-2 areas. Data of this research mostly collect from these areas, but other area of Badambagicha also conducted for the various purposes of this research.

Short History of this Area
Before 90’s, Badambagicha area was not as developed as city area. When university was established in this area, the area had been becoming more important for economic sectors various governmental and non-governmental sectors invites for some institutions. For these purposes different kind of work place have developed, which encourage people to concentrate for incoming process of this city area. Since 1990’s outsider people have been settle in this area, majority of them are  migrated people, they came from different part of Bangladesh. Now, there are four residential areas, which are Purbasha Recidencial Area, Surma Recidencial Area, Noyapara Recidencial Area and Sraboni Recidencial Area. People of those residential area, are not local but “Sylheti”. They come from different part of the Sylhet region, and settled in this area. Now Badambagicha is a more important part of Sylhet city.

General criteria of migrated people
Migrants have different feature in this area. They have different statuses such as occupation, different aged, different sexes, and different cultural and ecological background. Within these situations, different migrated people carry different feature in terms of their different statues.
Occupation of Migrated people
In the Badambagicha area migrated people have different pattern of occupation. There are two different situations are seen in terms of different sex group of migrated people in Badambagicha area. The major occupations of male migrants are Rickshaw pullers, day laborer, driver, small businessman etc. 40% of male respondents are rickshaw puller, 28% are day laborer 16% are driver, 12% are low service holder and 47 are relate with different occupations. On the other hand, 40% of female respondents are maid servant, 26% are day laborer 20% are house wife, only 6.7% are low level service holder and remanding of them are related to other works. In the below tables and chart show these ratio of male and female occupation in this area.


Table: Male occupation

Different male occupation
    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Rickshaw puller    10    40.0    40.0      
Day Laborer    7    28.0    68.0      
Driver    4    16.0    84.0      
Low service holder    3    12.0    96.0      
Other    1    4.0    100.0      
Total    25    100.0        

Table: Different occupation of female migrated people

Different Female occupation    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Maid Servant                           Maidservant    6    40.0    40.0      
House Wife    4    26.7    66.7      
Day laborer    3    20.0    86.7      
Low level service holder    1    6.7    93.3      
Other occupation    1    6.7    100.0      
Total    15    100.0       

Population and household pattern:
There are about 85 households and about 56 single migrants in this area. In the Badambagicha area, most of this migrated house leader is male (about 50 household) and 35-house hold leader are female, they have no adult male person (who can work). Within the single migrated people there are about 35 of them are female. Most of the single migrated people live in a house by sharing. On an average 2 to 4 are live in a single room. These situations are lower in terms of female context; most of the female live in a room as individually. The below table shows the number of household and population pattern.
Table: Number of household and population pattern.

Different local area    Number of household    Number of single migrant    Total population      
Coloni No-2    44    15    160      
Coloni No-1    25    9    115      
Coloni No-3    16    32    80      
Total    85    56    355   
Source: Primary research work.

The above table shows that different areas have different number of household and single migrated people. Coloni No-2 have 44-house hold but there are only 15 single migrants.  And in the Coloni No-3 there are only 16 household and 32 single migrants, which are too large than Coloni No-2. These differences have simple reasons, Coloni No-2 is situated in outside of this area and Coloni No-3 is in the central of this area and more closer to the central position of Sylhet city. On the other hand, there are some variation in house rent, most of the family migrants try to settle here as because there house rent is lower than other area. Single migrants always choose to settle at that place which are more closer to central city and they do not feel so pressure for house rant, because they share a single room by two on more people.
Migrated people have different pattern of educational level. Those migrated people have education; they acquired this in their previous home place. But children of migrated family have been continuing their education in the city area. There are only 30 families, they enroll their children in the school, and only 19 families are continuing their children’s education in this area. But most of the migrated family’s enrolled children dropout without completing their five years education (Primary level). Children enrollments are more relate to the parents education. But there are only 30 families, whose one of parents (mother or father) has previous education up-to high school level. There are only two people founded who had gone to the college in their previous home place.

Income and expenditure of migrated people
The study is conducted as population, those are migrated from village area and those people have basic criteria for this research as . In this study,  people are not only defining by economically but also emphasizes on their social position and cultural background in their own society. Income and expenditure of this group of people are more different by other group of people in this area. In the Badambagicha area, Upper level income is 5000 Tk. to 6500 Tk. per month and lower level income is 1200 Tk per month. There are only 27.5% of family have upper level income. But most of the families of upper level income have two or more income holder and those families have large family member. In the Badambagicha area, there are 30% family or single migrated people have 2500 taka or less than 2500 taka income by per month, these are mostly single migrated people and remaining 42% people are in the middle level income holder. In the below table shown the different income group of migrated people in Badambagicha area.

Table: Income of respondents' family (monthly)

Monthly income    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
1200.00    1    2.5    2.5      
1500.00    4    10.0    12.5      
2000.00    6    15.0    27.5      
2500.00    1    2.5    30.0      
3000.00    5    12.5    42.5      
3200.00    1    2.5    45.0      
3500.00    4    10.0    55.0      
4000.00    3    7.5    62.5      
4500.00    4    10.0    72.5      
5000.00    6    15.0    87.5      
6000.00    3    7.5            95.0      
6500.00    2    5.0           100.0      
Total    40    100.0       

Most of the incomes of all level income holders are expend their income in maintaining their daily consuming needs and paying their house rent. In the Badambagicha area there are more common expending sectors are food, house rent, treatment, clothing, and education, cash sending to home place. In the Badambagicha area, single male migrants have dependency to maintain their previous family needs. Majority part of their income they send for their family member who lives in their village area.
The migrated people of this area, nobody can fulfill their family needs by their current income. But they have no extra source of income to fulfill their need successfully.

The migrated people spend 50% of their income in their food and accommodation purposes, most of them are belong in lower level income and most of them are single male migrants, though they have low food and accommodation cost but they have to maintain their previous family needs.

2.3.5 Working condition
Different migrant have different working condition in their occupation place, most of the rickshaw puller have no own rickshaw, they occupy rickshaw by paying rent. For ten hour, they pay 35 Tk. per day to owner of the rickshaw. There are two shift working situation in the rickshaw pulling. Most of the rickshaw puller in Badambagicha area is pulling rickshaw one shit in a day. Day laborer have no permanent works, they do not find work in regularly, most of the time they work in construction sectors of this city area. In this area, migrated people are mostly work in University construction sectors; they work in this sector nine hour (8 am to 5 pm) in a day. Maidservant of female migrants have different pattern of work-time in terms of their working place.

Table: Different work time of migrated people

Per day work time    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Ten hour    23    57.5    57.5      
Eight hour    12    30.0    87.5      
Six hour    5    12.5    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       

In the Badambagicha area, there are more university student match and teacher houses, most of the female migrants are work in this sector for cooking, washing and other home activities. They have two or three shifts working time such as to prepare breakfast in the morning, lunch in the mid day and supper in the night. They go to the work place as two shifts, morning and evening shifts. In the morning shifts they completed breakfast and lunch and in the evening shift complete supper. Most of the female migrants prefer that work than other family’s work. In these work they find more time and more freedom in their work place.

2.3.6 Marital Status
Different migrated people have different pattern of marital status. This different situation is mostly seen in the marital perspectives of single migrated people. Those single migrants age 18-22, most of them are unmarried above 22 age singles male migrants have marital status in the in previous home place. These aged group people have two-type situation as married (those have partner in their previous home place) and divorced (those have not any partner). In the Badambagicha area all of female single migrants had married in their previous home place but not all of them are divorced or separate.
Marital situation of family migrants of Badambagicha area, they are married, but there have some differentiation. Newly married family of this area has previous marital experience. Both spouse are married before present marriage. There are 13 family that the leader of household (male) have another family in the in previous house place. In the Zogi Para area, two single migrants married in this area within one year.

2.3.7 Family pattern:

It is already mentioned that, most of the male single migrant’s family live in their rural area. Majority of them belonging in joint family pattern in their village area. Single female migrants have no family partner in the city area; most of the migrated families of this area are nuclear in their nature. There are only 2 family which are joint family’ in their nature, these family which are joint family have father, mother uncle, aunty and their children. One of the joint has their grand father who lives with commonly in this city area.
Table: Different family pattern of migrated people

Different type of family    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Joint family    2    5.0    5.0      
Extended famil    12    30.0    35.0      
Conjugal Family    26    65.0    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       

There are some families, which have linkage with their previous village family. In this situation, they count as both side family members, same time they are the member of their previous family and their city family. These families are count in this study as extended family.

3.8 Formal and informal Facilities provided

Formal and informal facilities mean the institutional and non-institutional supports get migrated people in this area. There are some institution as mosque, club, market, NGO Organization and governmental organization. Migrated people have different type of access in these institutions, in their local mosque, they do not go as regularly, they always try to maintain Juma prayer on Friday. But these are not regularly possible for their working condition. In any special day of religion they go to mosque, but most of the time the local language briefing of before prayer by Imam, they cannot understand it, for this, this briefing is more painful for them.
In the Badambagicha area there are three primary schools, BDR School, Brahmun Sasan School and Shakhpara primary school. Children of migrated people are enrolled in these schools but most of them do not continue their education, children opinions about this situation that their teachers always beat them, and for this they do not find any interest in their school. In the Badambagicha area, there is a high school but there are no migrated children who enroll in this school. In this area there is a University (Shahjalal University of Science and Technology) but non-migrated people can dream that any of the children will enroll in this institution.
There are some club, such as Purbasha Kallan Shanstha, Brahman Shasan Juba Sangha, Those club are provided is some consciousness programs and they are also provide vaccine for the migrated children. But some of the migrants have complain about them, that some young member of these club make some sin-create with their female persons. BRAC and ASHA work in this area, 15 single female migrants and about 20 migrated families female persons are engaged in their credit program. In any health problems migrated people get treatment by local doctor in this area, but in the serious in juries they go to Osmani Medical College Hospital, which is situated in the five miles far away from their local area. Migrated people buy their daily needs (goods and services) from local market. There are three markets, which are Brahman Shasan, Bazaar, Badambagicha Bazaar.
Within above those different features Badambagicha area has been becoming a busy zone in Sylhet city. People come here from different part of Bangladesh and arrange a cosmopolite ion culture. They have different cultural background; family background and they have different type of feature in terms of their own socio-cultural criteria. For these reasons, this area should be a fruitful study area for Urban Anthropology as well as other discipline of Social Science.

Badambagicha is a newly from urbanized area, at this formation periods  people migrated here and they try to adjust their life in this new formations. In ordered to adjustment within that type situation,  migrated people have to face some crucial factors. Water is that type factors in this area, but it is most living entities in all over the world. For this reason, they create a new formation of social relation in terms of the collection of their sufficient water. There are some different patterns among water related behavior of  migrated people; they have different pattern of water sources and different pattern of water using practices in this area.

Major Water Source in Badambagicha Area
Most of the migrated people depend on tube well for their daily usable water. In the three local areas of migrated people in Badambagicha, there are only 14 tube well, Coloni no1 has 4 tube wells Coloni no-3 has 4 tube well and Coloni no-2 has 6 tube wells. In the Coloni no-2 area, there are 160 people used only 6 tube wells and on the other hand, only two families use a tube well in this area, remaining 42 household used only 5 tube wells. Coloni no-1 area has 115 people and they have 4 tube wells, within these only 10 household use 2 tube wells and remaining household use another 2 tube wells. In the Coloni NO-3 area there are 16 household for 2 tube wells and 32 single migrants have 2 tube wells, but only ten single female migrants use 1 tube well and remaining 22 male migrants have a single tube well in this area.

Table: Number of tube well in migrated people area.

Different local area    Total population    Number of tube well      
Coloni no-2    160    6      
Coloni No- 1    125    4      
Coloni no-3    80    4   
Source: Primary Survey of this research.

In the three local area of migrated people in Badambagicha have two ponds Coloni no-1 have a pond, but the people have no owning share in this pond but they used this water source by special permission and with some conditions. In the Coloni no-2 area there is a small pond sometime  migrated people use it’s water. Because owner of this pond has objection to using it’s water. In the Coloni NO-3 area there has a tank (kuaa) the owner of their house and the owner of the tank is the same person, for this they always use this water as frequently. This sources of water mostly used by male single migrated people in this area within these three local areas there are only Coloni NO-3 has supply water (Washa’s water) which are provide by Washa of Pourashaba. Only two household of migrated family have used this water sources. For this service, they have to provide extra rent to their owner of the house hold with their house rent. In the below table shows the different water sources in the migrated people areas of Badambagicha in sylhet city.


Different local area    Tube Well    Pond    Tank    Supply Water (Number of family)      
Coloni no-2    6    1    No    no      
Coloni No-1    4    No    1    no      
Coloni no-3    4    No    1    2 family    
Source: Primary survey of this research.

Water Using Pattern of  Migrated People
The ‘use of, water’ have various aspects; in this study have been concern among those variation. Obviously, water is also at the central attention of those who have the asepsis view of sanitation and water related more concern for cleanliness among the migrants is the use of water. Cleanliness refers not only to a physical state, but also to a state of mind. However, water plays a critically important role in all aspect of cleanliness, from physical to spiritual. Let us now consider the various areas of life where is used and the different properties that are attached to it in these different uses.

Water for Human Consumption
Water is a more important thing for every human being to minimize ones thirst of migrants people use water for drinking in the different situation from different sources. The major source of drinking water is tube well, which they share among all of the migrants of their area. In the summer season, when water level decreased in underground, the hands operate shallow tube well fail to pumping water from more underground level. Then most of the migrants use other sources of water for their drinking. At that time, majority people used ponds water from near their ponds, but in summer season, hot weather minimize water level and the surrounding people of this ponds area increase used this sources of water as frequently. So the drinking quality of this ponds water has becoming too much low. Without any other alternative they have to bound use this water. That time they storage water from near of the ponds in different jars and pitchers. In this is some migrated people used ponds water for drinking purposes by boiling. However majority migrants used ponds water by mixing fitkary.
Household leader of migrants people stay all day long outside their house for their occupation. At that time they used outsider water from different places. Migrant’s rickshaw puller moving here and there, for that type occupation, they desire more water. To fulfill their thirsty they go to the near about any tea stat for drink, at that time they does not try to know what are the source of this water. Other occupations have same scenery of them.
Migrants drink water mainly at three time in a day, when they take meal they drink more water, but after meal they drink little more water. On average male migrants drink water is more than female migrants, because more water drinking create more urinates pressure, male people can do this any where but female cannot do this. For this, they always try to drink little water in their work place. Most of the family migrants has glass and maug’ for using drinking or any other liquid. But most of the male single migrants have not any glass for drinking water they used omitted bottle of any other soft drinking organism including Coca Cola, Pepsi etc, sometime little children of migrated family drink water directly from tube well.
On average 60% adult people of migrated area, regular drink about 3 liter water, 20% drink 2 liter and other remaining migrated people drink only 1.5 liter water in per day. Majority children of migrated family per day about drink 1.5 liter in average. In the below table show the ratio of different pattern of water people drink in a day.
      Table: Ratio of per day Drinking water

Quantity of water    Number of people    Percent      
3 liter    24    60%      
2 liter    5    20%      
1.5 liter    8    20%      
Total    40    100%   
     Source: Research Work, Course No- ANP 400, 2004-2005.   

Water for Washing
Cleanliness is mostly depending on the peoples washing by water. It is a major usable sector of water that is the cleansing of body, tools and different aspect of the material culture. By washing people fell that they are becoming pure from impurity of their body and mind. Migrated people used water for washing as differently. They use water for washing their cloths; most of the migrants used ponds water for washing their cloth. But there has some differentiation, such as those are more costly cloths for them they wash it in the tube well water, because ponds water is not so-clear as tube well water. That type cloths they puts on only any occasion time, some migrants have views that the tube well water have some organ that change their cloths color particularly white color cloths. For this, they always wash the white cloths in the ponds water by searching clearly.
People wash their body in bathing with different types of water. Most of the migrants use ponds water for bathing. They bath in the afternoon when they comeback from their works. In their house, without bathing they feel impurity, so they always try to take bath. But when they come back from work place, they have to need prepare their food for their children or themselves (mostly seen female migrated people), on the other hand that time all people come back from work place, the bathing area becoming busy. In that situation they soak any cloth with water and clear their body in their house.  With this washing pattern they have not satisfy, impurity is not removing from their mind. Mostly, children of migrated people take bath in by ponds. They always prefer that water.
Most of the time female migrant’s people go to the bath in ponds by jointly with the other female neighbors; they have created a relation within that situation. In the Coloni NO-3 area, there has no pond, migrant’s bath in this area by tube well water. In the time of bathing, they have to face competition for a acquired tube well for bath, most of the time they have to wait long time for get tube well as free. Children of this area mostly avoid bath, migrated parents have to create pressure for bathing their children. In the winter season this areas’ people face more crisis to maintain their regular bathing. Because, that time they get little water from their tube wells, by this little water it is too difficult to maintain they’re desired.
By water, people wash their regular cooking instrument, which are include regular using dishes, cooking pots, glass, spoons etc. Mostly this work play by female migrants people of this area. They wash it’s in the morning with their own hygiene of there body in the morning shifts. Migrated people used water for clearing after using latrine, and then they wash their hand leg and month.
For all washing the migrated people will try to seek out ‘clean’ water, which will be identified by its relative clarity and absences of visible contaminants as opposed to ‘dirty;’ or polluted water which will be murky, middy or containing visible pollutants. Thus a distinction is made between what is it fit for cleansing purposes and what, which is polluted.

Water Use for Cooling
As  migrated people they are more oppressed in economical level in their own situation. In the summer season, when they come back from their work, they have feel more hotly as physically. They always try to cool their body by anyhow. But for their economical condition they cannot arrange electrical facilities by their own income. They have only one way that they have to do soak their body with water. Most of the migrants do that type attitude in the summer season. On the other hand migrant people use water at that purposes, when any body affected by fever and their body will more hot by affection, they always try to cool their body by using water.

 Water for ritual management
Water function as ritual cleanliness, people use water for removing their body and mind from impurity to pure. Migrated people have some belief about water using. They used water for various purposes of religious activities. Muslim migrated people used water being Aju (ablution) before their prayer. Particularly they have beliefs among water for its purity, if people contained more sin by his badly activities, but when he properly practices Aju by pure water, he will remove from sin. The use of water is central to this form of ablution and can be dispensed with only in those circumstances where it is completely unavailable.
In Hindu migrant families, as well, water plays a crucial role during rites of purification. If Hindu people touch any impure thing such a human excreta, the body has becoming impure in according to their religious role. For this reason people will be treat as polluted, but this pollution, may be remove only by washing with water, they have another type of belief about water, they belief that every water is related with the river Gangous which is consider sacred. For this reason, they cannot play any profane work with water.
Another use of water as a part of transformation rituals is on various healing practices, such as ‘pani para’. At that situation people used water as a medium of blessing. Most of the migrated people used blessing water for removing any kind of illness, which are blessed by any folk healer. In the Badambagicha area there is a folk healer, he blessed water for removing from ‘jaundice’ diarrhea and other profane diseases. They belief that most of the time they over come their physical crisis by using his blessing water.

In below provide a chart, which focuses the different purpose of water using pattern of migrated people in this area. The chart shows that water use mostly in three purposes, such as consuming, bathing and washing different things. Some water also use in other different purposes as well water used for ritual management that includes different healing purposes water using and water used for sanctity as well after using latrine.  

 Water and Social Interaction
Migrated people contact with other people for various causes, in their particular area; they have different types of social relation with other people. They have a newly form of social relation in terms of the sharing water among with other people in his particular area. Migrated people share tube well by different families. Most of the time this type social relation maintained by female persons of this areas. Female persons collect drinking water from their local tube well, mostly in the tube well place found one or more persons work by using tube well water. At that time, they talking with each other and sharing their daily experience in this place. On this tube well place, they maintain their relation with other people.
In the Coloni no-1 there is an interesting story about the tube well place. A unmarried girl make her love affair by using this place. Every morning she come here for washing her family dishes and that time her male partner come here for his morning washing (wash his mouth). They had opportunity to talk with each other. By regular continue this activities they feel each other and make love affair.

In conclusion, its say that water plays a havoc role in the life living practice of migrated people. They use water in different purposes and they collect water from various sources. Within these both situations, water plays an important social role to maintain social relation with different migrated people.

Sanitation as a way of life: ‘It is the quality of living expressed in clean homes, clean neighborhoods, and a clean community. Being a way of life it must come from its people is nourished by knowledge and grows as the obligation and ideal in human relation’ (USA national sanitation foundation). Sanitation has a wide connotation. It relate to the safe disposal of human excreta, waste water and solid waste, water supply, domestic and personal hygiene, food sanitation and housing etc. In the Badambagicha area, the behavior of  migrated people among sanitation is very different in terms of their newly adaptable city area. They come from different background of cultural pattern and different life way. In this city area, their behavior among sanitation is more influenced  by their previous experience.

Latrine Use of Migrated People
Migrated people have different type of latrine related behavior. Particular people have particular pattern of behavior for using latrine and they use different type of latrine in their locality in terms of their own socio-economic position in a particular area.

Different Type of Latrine
There are differently five type of latrine found, such as pacca latrine, semi-pacca latrine, open latrine, shift latrine and no particular place for latrine, Only 11 pacca latrines are found in the three local areas of migrated people. Coloni no-2 area has 4 latrines and Coloni NO-3 and Coloni No-1 has about 3 and 4. But sharing practices of pacca latrine is very different. In the Coloni no-2 area, there are only 4 families who use 2 pacca latrines and in Coloni NO-3 area there is 1 peace latrine used by one family. These situations are  also found in the colony No-1. In the Badambagicha area, most of the migrated people use semi-pacca latrine. About 32.5% of migrated people use that type of latrine. There are some open and shifting latrines. Open latrine is that type of latrine, which has no hollow, or excreta storage, people give up their excreta in open place. However, some of the open latrines have outsider wall. Shift latrine means, those type latrines which can shift in time after time. In the Badambagicha area, there are 10% shift latrine. Some of the  migrated people in this area whose have no particular place for using the excreta. They leave it here and there.

Table:   Ratio of different type of latrine used by  migrated people

Different Type of Latrine    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Pacca Latrine    11    27.5    27.5      
Semi-Pacca Latrine    13    32.5    60.0      
Open Latrine    7    17.5    77.5      
Shift Latrine    4    10.0    87.5      
No Particular Place for Latrine    5    12.5    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       

Source: Research Work, Course No.- ANP 400, 2004-2005.[

Using Pattern of Latrine:
In the Akhali area people use latrine in difficulty. On average, most of the people in this area, use per latrine by 11 to 15 household. At that situation most of them use semi-pacca latrine. Migrated people in this area are engaged in different type of occupation and most of them go to their work place at morning. At that time they always try to use their latrine. But in this area all of the latrines become very busy, most of the time they have to wait for acquired their latrine. Some time this situation create quarrel with the sharing people of a particular latrine.

Table: Sharing Pattern of Using Latrine

Per latrine share by household    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
1 to 5 Household    3    7.5    7.5      
6 to 10 Household    12    30.0    37.5      
11 to 15 Household    18    45.0    82.5      
16 to 20 Household    7    17.5    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       
Source: Research Work, Course No.- ANP 400, 2004-2005.

Source: From above table.

Most of the latrine of this area spread bad smell, when people use latrine they covere their mouth with clothes for remaining the bad smll. In the Akhali area children of migrated people do not use latrine place in regularly. Most of the time they use open place for their latrine and most of the time these place are in near their house. In the Badambagicha area some latrines have particular using pattern, specially open and shifting latrine do not have any particular well wall. For this, female persons of this area use these type latrines in the early morning or in the late evening, but at night they always try to avoid it. Because, that type of latrines do not have any lighting system and they think that latrine area is more risky for them (in previous, they have better experience).

Latrine Related Behavior
Migrated people behave among latrine using in difficulty in their particular area. When they feel pressure for their latrine they always go to the latrine immediately and at that time they always ensure their position in the latrine. Other wise another person will acquire this place. For this strong competition, they do not so much conscious about other situation, such as use sandle in the latrine time. Most of the migrated person do not use sandle in the latrine time. Only 17.5% of migrated people regular use sandle in their latrine time. 37.5% some time use sandle remaining persons of people never use sandle in their latrine time. In Badambagicha area, most of the children of migrated people do not use sandle in the latrine time, they always go to the latrine in bear foot. But some parents of migrants children have some specific awareness about their latrine environment, most of the time they try to care their children among latrine related behavior. In following table shows the different pattern sandle in latrine time.
Table: Different pattern of sandle using

Sandle use in differently    Frequency    Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Regular    7    17.5    17.5      
Sometime    15    37.5    55.0      
Not even    18    45.0    100.0      
Total    40    100.0       
Source: Research Work, Course No.- ANP 400, 2004-2005.

Migrated people think that latrine place not so good, particularly in health purpose, it is a bad place and they have particular ritual about latrine using. Some migrated people put dirty clothes, where they go to the latrine and after latrine, they keep it for other latrine time. Most of the time they do not wash these clothes in regularly.

9.2: Soap use and Awareness about Health

BRAC and ASHA’s workers regular visit in those  areas of migrated people. Mostly they deal with them about their particular credit program, but some time they deal with migrated people for their health awareness. Other NGO’s workers also visit some time in these areas and provide them some vaccine and other consciousness thinking about their health. From those people, they get some awareness some thing about their health, they think that soap is a most important thing for their health. Particularly after latrine  use it is more important, for health. Most of the migrates knows that type health awareness men, but in this area, there are few people who use soap in this area, there are few people use soap after using latrine and in their bathing time. This situation focuses in the below table, most of the migrated people do not use soap in regularly after they used their latrine.

Table: Different pattern of soap use in after latrine

Soap use in differently    Frequency    Percent    Valid Percent    Cumulative Percent      
Regular    5    12.5    12.5    12.5      
Sometime    18    45.0    45.0    57.5      
Not even    17    42.5    42.5    100.0      
Total    40    100.0    100.0       
Source: Research Work, Course No. ANP 400, 2004-2005.

After latrine most of the migrated people wash their hand with water, some time they use soap. Most of the time they use clay, muddy or ash for wash their hand. Sometime migrated people use soap at their bathing, but it is not regular seen. Most of the people use soap in their bathing, when they fell that their body is so dirty for daily work. The ratio of soap using is more in female person than male person in this area.

Hand Use in Different Purposes
People have various purposes among their hand uses. In   taking food they use their hand in different way.  Such as, female person use their hand when they prepare their family’s food. They wash food instrument, cooking instrument, cut and arrange raw food item by using hand. Most of the female person use their bear hand when the boil water in pot or any other hot instrument to keep out  from burner/cooker. Female person use their in other different purposes, which are listed in below:
1) To serve food within other family member
2) To prepare wood or other burning things
3) To feed their baby
4) To wash cooking or other instrument
5) To nursing other family members
6) To take meal
7) To wash clothes
8) To use after latrine
9) To wash their body as well as face, mouth, nose and other part of their body. 
10) They use their hand for ritual activities, such as at the time of Aju.
11) To make an fire in any cooker
12) To scabies any other part of body
13) They use their hand in their work place
14) To wash their body or take bath
15) Use hand for clearing their hand.
16) They use their hand for controlling their children.
17) They use their hand for clearing their houses or other place of their houses.
18) They use their hand to express any other symbol to other people.
That is the common using pattern of hand of female person of migrated people. Most of the male persons have some type of using pattern, but when they stay out of their house they use their hand in differently.

Drainage System
In the Badambagicha area, there are two main drains, both drains have been carry and covered half part area of this city and those are controlled by municipal corporation of Sylhet city. Most of the rich people’s houses  have well planed, they have link with main drain by creating small drain. But most of the migrated people live in  settlement sectors, their houses have no well drainage system. On the other hand, some migrated families stay in thatplaces where the owner of their houses never can stay there. Most of the time those owner people live in abroad (London). They buy this plote for their future interest. For this, they do not think about this area.
In the Badambagicha area, all of the migrated people pay their house rent to other person (they identify them as caretaker). They are not directly related to their owner of their houses,  some time those caretakers are relatives of the owner of the houses. Those  caretaker people, who have no interest about the drainage system of their careing area, where migrated people live.
In the three local areas of migrated people they have no particular drain. In the rainy season rain water is stored in their house area. Then they try to remove this water by cutting soil and create a path for removing water. Most of the time this water is mixed with human excreta, where open or shifting latrine is more focused. In the coloni No-1, people have an advantage for their geographical location, they settle in high land area. For this, after rain there water flow to the down ward. But in the other place of migrated area, such as Coloni no-2 and Coloni NO-3, most of the migrated settlement were in low land area. In both of these areas where have no proper drainage system. In the rainy season their situation become very miserable.

Solid Waste Disposal
In their daily life , migrated people amass more waste. In the Badambagicha area they have no particular place for disposed their daily waste. Most of the time they fall it near their house or any other hallow side. Coloni no-2 and Coloni NO-3 have different particular places for waste disposal. But these places are not well planed, near waste disposal place there are some migrants houses. When these waste is purified it spread bad smell in the arrounding area. Migrated people know that this bad smell is more harmful for their health, but they have nothing to do for this. Some time they complain to their owner of house or caretaker. But they do not find fruitful activities from them. For this, when this situation become more suffering to them, they arrange own self to clear this waste or chop soil in over this waste place. In the coloni No-1, there is a particular place, people through their waste in near hilly side of their houses. At that situation, they have an advantage position for their particular settlement. But that type of waste disposal make some disadvantages for them.  (they think), after some days those abundant waste was purified, then its spread bad smell in their locality.

Food Taking Behavior
Migrated people have different pattern of food taking behaviour. These situations are more influenced by their occupational condition. Migrated rickshaw puller one time take meal in their own house at night. In the Badambagicha area most of the single migrants arrange their daily meal with other single migrants. There have some different pattern some rickshaw pattern, those are in Coloni NO-3 area, they take their meal in their own house at the two time as morning and night. When they leave their house for rickshaw pulling they try to complete their morning meal (not breakfast). At that time they take rice with a single vegetable carry,  some rickshaw puller have in the Akhali area those do not like to take food in morning time, they always try to complete their meal by some of this food. Generally, in the three local area of migrated people, they take their meal in three time by rice. In breakfast, with rice they take some available vegetable curry, some take ruti with potato fry (vegetable) at the morning time. In the lance (midday meal) they take rice with single carry which is prepared by fish. Particularly in a single day or a week they take meat. But that situation is not same in all level of migrants. Mostly those single migrants have arranged match system in their meal schedule, they take a schedule meal system in their daily life.
Most of the rickshaw puller in the Badambagicha area, they take their lance and other partial thin food take in outside their house. At that time they use road side tea stall, which have chief price. This time they do not follow well hygiene practices. With little water they wash their hand and mouth before taking their meal. But most of the time they only wash their hand then take meal.
Other occupational person, in the Badambagicha area  take their meal in differently. Specially the female migrants those work in different construction place. They carry their midday meal and take their meal by washing their hand and mouth (if possible). Most of the time they do not find enough time for taking their midday meal. So, they try to quickly complete their meal. House wife and maid servant take their daily meal in their house. House wife take their meal after other family members take there meal and maid servant take their meal with abandoned food, which they get from their work place. Children of migrants take their meal in their house, sometime they take other food from near shop or hawker. In the Badambagicha area there are some migrant families, who do not take meal in three time. Mostly they take two time, at morning and night. At midday they take some thin food such as biscuit, mori, chira or other thin food.

Domestic and personal Hygienic
As domestically, migrated people practice some cleanliness activities. In  most of the migrant family, particularly female person of a household regular clean their floor. In the Badambagicha area majority migrants house floor are constructed by soil (muddy floor) When they wash their floor they use abandoned cloth soak with water. But in the single migrants those are not regular wash their floor in regularly. After ten or fifteen days they wash their house. Migrant family wash their regular using clothes after a week. But   female person of those families work in outside of their house they do not practice that type of attitude. Most of the single male migrants wash their clothes after long time using. But single female migrants have different situation. Most of them wash there daily use clothes in regularly.
In the Badambagicha area, most of the male migrants hot conscious about their personal cleanliness. They do not cut their nail in regularly and do not shave in regularly. Most of the time they shave their beard after long time. Migrants people take bath in regularly, but in winter season they take bath after one or two days. Because most of them take bath in evening or night, when they come back from their work, so winter water is more cold for them and more thought for bathing. 

Sanitation Related Diseases of  Migrated People
In the Badambagicha area, migrated people affected by different type of health problems, Most of the diseases of them are closely related with their low-level sanitation behavior specially in water related. In last one year,  migrants are effect by two major diseases, which are identify as water boon and water wash diseases such as water born disease4s is jaundice and water wash disease is diarrhea. In the Badambagicha area there are a single person found within every 12, who are affect by jaundice or diarrhea. In the dry seasons of this area, most of the people effected by both of this diseases. In the Badambagicha area, people are affected by other some diseases, including as cholera, dysentery, Pell attack etc. Those are also sanitation related discuses.
In the Badambagicha area, most of the people get treatment for these diseases from folk healer. Badambagicha area has a folk healer, who provides pani para for various diseases. Some time in crucial moment, they go to the Ousmani Medical Collage hospital their better treatment.

Safe water and sanitation are essential for the development of public health. The Government's goal is to ensure that all people have access to safe water and sanitation services at an affordable cost. To achieve this goal and to ensure that development in the water supply and sanitation sector is equitable and sustainable, formulation of National Policy for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation is essential.
The Government started its initial intervention in the water supply and sanitation sector with the objective of gradually building an effective service delivery mechanism about 62 years ago. After independence, the Government laid emphasis on rehabilitation of damaged water supply and sanitation services and installation of new facilities in rural and urban areas through the Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE). Services were provided mostly free of charge. The role of the users in decision-making, cost sharing and operations and maintenance was negligible. However, subsequently user participation increased significantly. Rural communities' are now responsible for operation and maintenance of hand-pump tube-wells and receive training for the purpose. The responsibility for installation, operation and maintenance of urban water supply (excepting Dhaka, Narayangong and Chittagong) was initially with DPHE only but now it is shared with the Paurasabhas. Recent project-based activities in the Paurasabhas and their involvement in planning, implementation and management have had a positive impact on improvement of Paurasabha capacity. Most of the Paurasabhas and the Union Parishads now have Water Supply and Sanitation Committees (W A TSAN) comprising the user communities for supervising water and sanitation related activities. In addition to DPHE, the Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) is also involved in planning and implementation of water and sanitation services in certain Paurasabhas and growth centers identified by the Planning Commission under selected projects. In 1983 Water Supply and Sewerage Authorities (W AS A) were established in Dhaka and Chittagong cities. The responsibility of water supply, sewerage and drainage in Dhaka city and water supply in Chittagong city now rests with the respective W ASAs. In the year 1990 Narayanganj town was brought under the jurisdiction of Dhaka W ASA. In Dhaka city water supply coverage is only 65% and sanitation coverage is around 72%, of which 30% may be assigned to water borne sewerage. But the average coverage conceals the intra- and inter-regional disparities. The ratio of tube-well to persons is around 70 in the shallow water table area; and 200 and 300 in the coastal and low water table areas respectively. Pollution of surface water is increasing because of imperfect water management and environmental pollution. The recent detection of arsenic in ground water is an issue of grave concern. To preserve environmental quality and to mitigate arsenic contamination research and field surveys are being carried out. The government is encouraging and supporting the involvement of other partners, such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) market- oriented business organizations and similar private organizations in water and sanitation development. This combined promotional campaign for better health and hygiene has increased the demand for tube-wells and sanitary latrines. Due to increase of private sector its capacity for production, installation and maintenance of tube-wells and sanitary latrines has also increased. Materials for installing tube-wells and spares for maintenance are produced by private manufacturers and are available in the market in " abundance. The materials which were imported before are now mostly manufactured in the country. A number' of NGOs have devised and implemented innovative and effective approaches for service delivery.

The gradual success made by Bangladesh in the provision of basic water supply services to its rural population has earned plaudits. In terms of a service level defined as percentage of population living within 150 meters of a tube-well, the present rural water supply coverage is over 90% and the rural sanitation coverage) is 16%, though it increases to 42% when 'home-made2' latrines are considered. The urban water supply3 and sanitation coverages are both around 50%.
I. Rural and urban sanitation coverage is presently defined as one sanitary latrine per household.
2. Home-made latrines are defined as pit latrines without water seal pans and without pit linings.
3. Urban Water supply coverage is presently defined as one house connection per household olone street hydrant per 100 people.
Although the achievement is significant in the context of South Asia, it is recognized that the goal of total improvement in general health and well being has only been partially achieved. Incidences of morbidity and mortality from water-borne diseases are still high and achievement in behavioral changes in sanitation leaves much to be desired. Inequities in access to water and sanitation services persist. Urban areas are better served compared to the rural areas and in the rural areas the  enjoy fewer facilities compared to the rich. On the other hand, the facilities provided are not used optimally and service sustainability remains to be improved. Consequently, development activities are hampered and efforts to improve public health have had limited effect. However, many development projects have attempted to redress these inadequacies but these adopt divergent approaches and the benefits are limited only within project boundaries.
It is globally recognized that physical provision of services alone is not a sufficient pre-condition for sustainability or improvement of health and well being of the people. Greater attention needs to be focused on elements of behavioral changes of users and sustainability through user participation in
planning, implementation, management and cost sharing. The need for change within the conventional programs are recognized by the government and all the stakeholders in the sector. The aim to bring about the changes calls for transition from traditional service delivery arrangement. Institutionalization of strategic partnership process between the central and local government in coordination with other organizations within the civil society is one way of bringing about this' change. This will result in the introduction of a service delivery process whose focal point will be the user communities. The change will necessitate the adoption of new institutional and financial arrangements. The knowledge and idea acquired from this new approach and experience could be reflected in a comprehensive policy. The government recognizes the urgent need of a comprehensive national water and sanitation policy which would reflect its commitment to pursuing a sustainable strategy and incorporate the initiatives based on recent experiences. The national policy shall provide a long term framework for adoption and implementation of action plans of the government.
In the policy, awareness ,of the longer-term perspective is also important. In this perspective, it will be easier to take appropriate actions within the regular programme under normal circumstances. At the same time, it will be helpful In facing emergency situations. The National Policy  will encompass a vision for the future in the light of which programmes can be undertaken in a systematic manner.
Considering the above the National Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Policy has been formulated with the objective of making water and sanitation services accessible to all within the shortest possible time at a price affordable to all. Past experiences were reviewed to emphasize the positive aspects while formulating the policy.

The objectives of the 'National Policy for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation' are to improve the standard of public health and to ensure improved environment. For achieving these objectives, steps will be taken for:
a) facilitating access of all citizens to basic level of services in water supply and sanitation; ,
b) bringing about behavioral changes regarding use of water and sanitation;
c) reducing incidence of water borne diseases;
d) building capacity in local governments and communities to deal more
effectively with problems relating to water supply and sanitation;
e) promoting sustainable water and sanitation services;
f) ensuring proper storage, management and use of surface water and
preventing its contamination;
g) taking necessary measures for storage and use of rain water;
h) ensuring storm -water drainage in urban areas.
Within the overall objectives the following specific goals will be targeted for achievement in phases in the near future:
i. Increasing the present coverage of safe drinking water in rural areas by lowering the average number of users per tube-well from the present 105 to 50 in the near future.
ii. Ensuring the installation of one sanitary latrine in each household in the rural areas and improving public health standard through inculcating the habit of proper use of sanitary latrines.
iii. Making safe drinking water available to each household in the urban areas.
iv. Ensuring sanitary latrine within easy access of every urban household through technology options ranging from pit latrines to water borne sewerage.
v. Installing public latrines in schools, bus stations and important public places and community latrines in densely populated  communities without sufficient space for individual household latrines.
vi. Ensuring supply of quality water through observance of accepted quality standards.
vii. Removal of arsenic from drinking water and supply of arsenic free water from alternate sources in arsenic affected areas.
viii. Taking measures in urban areas for removal of solid and liquid waste and their use in various purposes. Ensuring the use of waste for the production of organic fertilizer (compost) in the rural areas.
The strategy of the National Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Policy will be developed on the following principles:
a) All sector development activities shall be planned, coordinated and monitored on the basis of a sector development framework which will be prepared after the formulation of the Policy;
b) Participation of users in planning, development, operation and maintenance through local government and community based organizations of the stakeholders;
c) Development of water supply and sanitation sector through local bodies, public-private sector, NGOs, CBOs and women groups involving local women particularly elected members (of the local bodies in the sector development activities).;
d) Gradual community cost-sharing and introduction of economic pricing for services;
e) Assigning priority to under-served and un-served areas;
f) Adoption of water supply and sanitation technology options appropriate to specific regions, geological situations and social groups;
g) Local Government institutions/Paurasabhas to bear increasing share of capital cost;
h) Improvement of the existing technologies and conduct of continuous research and development activities to develop new technologies;
i) Close linkages between research organizations and extension agents/implementing agencies;
j) Social mobilization through publicity campaign and motivational
activities using mass media among other means to ensure behavioral
development and change in sanitation and hygiene;
k) Capacity building at the local/community level to deal effectively with
local water and sanitation problems;
I) Mobilization of resources from users, GOB and development partners for implementation of activities of the sector in a coordinated manner based on targeted plan of action;
m) Providing credit facilities for the  to bear costs of water and sanitation service;
n) Regular qualitative and quantitative monitoring and evaluation to review progress of activities and revision of the strategy based on experiences;
0) Wherever feasible safe water from surface water sources shall be given precedence over other sources; and
p) With a view to controlling and preventing contamination of drinking water, regular and coordinated water quality surveillance by Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), National Institute for Preventive & Social Medicine (NIPS OM), Atomic Energy Commission and Department of Environment (DOE) and random testing of quality of drinking water  (including bottled water) by DPHE, Bangladesh Standard Testing Institute (BSTI) and DOE to determine the level of contamination;
q) Adoption of necessary measures in urban areas to prevent contamination of ground and surface water by solid and liquid wastes.
i. Safe water supply means withdrawal or abstraction of either ground or surface water as well as harvesting of rainwater; its subsequent treatment, storage, transmission and distribution for domestic use.
ii. Sanitation means human excreta and sludge disposal, drainage and solid waste management.
iii. Sector means the safe water supply and sanitation sector.
This policy shall cover the geographical area comprising Bangladesh.

Policy Principles
Based on local and international experiences, the following principles have been adopted as the basis for policy formulation:
Basic needs -It is necessary to expand and improve the water supply and sanitation services in order to satisfy the basic needs of the people. The need to expand these facilities is greater in the case of under privileged groups and regions.
The value of water -Water has an organic, social and concurrently an economic value. To ensure that service provision is viable, the price of water should reflect its economic value, with the eventual objective of covering the cost of supply. However, the transition from the current level of subscription to new rate of payment should be gradual and there should be a safety net for hard-core  communities.
Participation of users -Users are at the center of all development activities. Effective use of resources and the provision of appropriate service level is facilitated by user participation at various stages of planning, implementation, operation and maintenance.
Role of Women -Since women playa crucial role in water management and hygiene education at the household level, recognition of women's role will contribute to the overall development of the sector.
Technology Options -Promotion of various technology options will be sustainable for both water supply and sanitation keeping the needs of specific areas and socio-economic groups of people.
Investment":" Investment in the sector should focus on facilitating water and sanitation services, leading to improvement of public health,. well being of the people and economic development. It is important to address the weaknesses on a priority basis with emphasis on maintaining the .operation of existing services. At the same time further coverage, specially to the under-privileged sections of the community, is necessary. Investment projects in this sector will be successful if these take into consideration the above-mentioned issue. The formulation and revision of the project will also be easier if the project incorporates the lessons learned and uses the feedback from the field.
Integrated development -Isolated initiatives for development of water and sanitation services generally lead to waste of resources. To ensure best use of limited resources for effective development, coordination is necessary among all tiers of the government, local government bodies, NGOs and other related parties including private sector.
Capacity building -The capacity of the sector should be expanded in order to improve and broaden the reach of services it provides. This will require actions related to human resource development, implementation of appropriate institutional arrangements, active involvement of user groups, and new roles for the government, local government bodies, NGOs and private organizations. Decentralization of decision making, training at the local level and local initiatives for resource planning are essential for success. Private sector -Many functions of the water supply and sanitation sector can be undertaken by private organizations. This will promote increased service coverage and thereby lessen the burden on the government. It is necessary to strengthen an administratively and financially enabling environment for the private sector to participate and contribute to sector development. Involvement of the private sector is essential to establish a closer relationship between the quality of services of the sector and its financial viability.
Environmental integrity -It is desirable that all development activities related to water supply and sanitation are considered within broader environmental considerations.
Emergency responses -All government and non-government bodies should be prepared to take necessary measures for immediate response before and after natural disaster. Involvement of all other stakeholders is also necessary.
Holistic approach -Drinking water supply and sanitation is a sub-sector and as such should be coordinated into the overall National Health Policy, National Water Policy, National Education Policy and National Environment Policy. Policies In general, the urban and rural water supply and sanitation issues appear similar, but they do differ in institutional aspects, and in content and magnitude. As such, policies for rural and urban areas are presented separately.

Rural Water Supply
Communities shall be the focus for all water supply activities; all other stakeholders including the private sector and NGOs shall provide coordinated inputs into the development of the sector with DPHE as the lead agency.
8.1.2. Local government bodies in village, union and thana level shall have a direct role in planning, implementation and maintenance of rural water supply and the activities of public and private sector agencies will be coordinated accordingly.
8.1.3. As water is increasingly considered to be an economic good as well as a social good, water supply services shall be provided based on user .demand and cost-sharing. In the near future concerned communities shall share at .least the following portions of costs: (a) 50% for hand
tube wells in shallow water table areas, (b) 25% for hand tube wells in low water table areas, (c) 20% for deep hand tube wells and other technologies for difficult areas.
8.1.4. User communities shall be responsible for operation and maintenance of water supply facilities and shall bear its total costs.
8.1.5. Women shall be encouraged and supported to actively participate in decision making during planning, operations and maintenance.
8.1.6. The rural water supply program shall support and promote a range of technology options. Technological packages and specifications for hardware and service levels shall be formulated on the basis of experience, needs and results of research and development. The experiences gained in this regard by DPHE, Private Sector, NGOs, CBOs will be shared for appropriate programme development.
8.1.7. During natural disaster, necessary measures shall be taken on an  emergency basis so that people have access to safe water and do not have to drink contaminated water. Necessary measures shall also be taken to prevent contamination and damage of tube wells during natural disaster. DPHE shall store enough materials and spares to take immediate action for repairing or installing tube wells in collaboration with local bodies, NGOs and CBOs. While the tube wells installed immediately after natural disaster will be free of cost, a part of rehabilitation of tube wells will be charged according to the age of the tube well damaged or destroyed.
 8.1.8. The capacity for qualitative and quantitative monitoring, analysis of information and policy implementation of the Local Government Division will be improved.
8.1.9. Alongside the program for distribution of hardware, emphasis will be given on publicity campaign and social mobilization through training of volunteers at village level for use of safe water for all purposes and water conservation.
8.1.10. Priority will be assigned to water supply in difficult and under-served areas.
8.1.11. In each and every village of Bangladesh at least one pond will be excavated/re-excavated and preserved for drinking water. Necessary security measures will be undertaken to prevent water of the pond from contamination.
8.2 Rural
8.2.1. Local government and communities shall be the focus of all activities relating to sanitation. All other stakeholders including the private sector and NGOs shall provide inputs into the development of the sector within the purview of overall government policy with DPHE ensuring coordination.
8.2.2. The users shall be responsible for operation and maintenance of sanitation facilities and will bear its total cost.
8.2.3. Measures will be taken so that users can bear increased cost of sanitation services. However, in case of hard core  communities, educational institutions, mosques and other places of worship. The costs may be subsidized partially or fully. In public toilets separate provision shall be made for women users.
8.2.4. Behavioral development and changes in user communities shall be brought about through social mobilization and hygiene education in coordination with the Ministries of Health, Education, Social Welfare, Information, Women & Children Affairs and DPHE, NGOs, CBOs, local government bodies and other related agencies.
8.2.5. Women shall be encouraged and supported to actively participate in decision making during planning, implementation, operation and maintenance.
8.2.6. The rural sanitation programme shall support and promote a range of technology options for water and environmental sanitation. Technological packages and. specifications for hardware and service levels shall be formulated. The experiences gained in this regard by DPHE, NGOs, CBOs will be shared for sustainable program
8.2.7. Use of organic waste material for compost and bio-gas will be promoted and contamination of water by various waste materials will be discouraged.
8.2.8. Within a specified period a legislation will be enacted making use of sanitary latrine compulsory.
8.3 Urban Water Supply 8.3.1. In order to make the water supply system sustainable water would  be supplied at cost. However, educational and religious institutions will be provided with water as per existing government rules.
8.3.2. In the near future water tariff shall be determined on the basis of the cost of water production, operation and maintenance, administration and depreciation.
8.3.3. Water Supply, Sewerage Authorities (W ASAs) shall be responsible for sustainable water supply in the metropolitan areas where W ASAs exist. Whereas in other urban areas the Paurasabhas with the help of DPHE shall be responsible for the service.
8.3.4. W ASAs and the Paurasabhas shall be empowered to set tariffs, by- laws, appointment of staffs, etc. according to their needs and in accordance with the guideline laid down by the government.
8.3.5. WASAs and the Paurasabhas shall improve their operational efficiency including financial management. In the near future billing and collection targets will be 90% and 80% respectively. Paurasabhas and W ASAs will take actions to present the wastage of water. In addition they will take necessary steps to increase public awareness to prevent misuse of water. Paurasabhas will take appropriate measures to reduce unaccounted for water from 50% to 30%. Dhaka W ASA and Chittagong W ASA will also lower their unaccounted for water from the present level.
8.3.6. In order to promote operational efficiencies the government's development grant to the Paurasabhas shall take into account the following :
a) water supply coverage in terms of area and population;
b) amount of un-accounted for water;
c) increase in revenue income.
8.3.7. The role of women in planning, decision making and management shall be promoted through ensuring increased representation in management committees/ boards (Paurasabha/W ASA).
8.3.8. Private sector participation will be promoted through BOO/BOT and other arrangements. For this purpose opportunities will be created for involving the private sector in billing and collection. A guideline on private sector participation in the sector will be prepared by the government.
8.3.9. During natural disaster WASAs and relevant agencies shall take appropriate measures for providing safe drinking water. This will include repairing and cleaning of pipelines, production well and other installations, emergency supply through water trucks and other necessary measures. The government will reimburse the cost of water supplied free of charge by the Paurasabhas, WASAs and other related agencies during emergency situations. .
8.3.10. Monitoring of water quality for the purpose of ensuring an acceptable 1, standard will be the responsibility of DPHE, DOE, BSTI, Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and CBOs and they will send their report
to the water quality control committee in the Local Government Division.
8.3.11. WASAs and relevant agencies shall support and promote any collective initiative in slums and squatters in accessing water supply services on payment.
8.3.12. WAS As, DPHE, BUET and AEC shall conduct research and development activities for the development of appropriate technologies and other developments with special emphasis on difficult and under-served areas. They .shall share the results of research and development and provide technical support to the private sector.
8.3.13. Efforts shall be made to upgrade the capacity of the Paurasabhas and 1 WASAs for planning, designing, implementation, management and human resource development and the DPHE shall have appropriate institutional linkages for this purpose. For future planning and strategy formulation regarding development projects Local Government Division's Monitoring, Evaluation & Inspection Wing shall monitor the activities of the sector.
8.3.14. In consultation with relevant government and non-government I organizations DPHE, W ASA and BUET will formulate an appropriate :, training program and impart the same in a decentralized manner.
8.3.15. The capacity of the Monitoring, Evaluation and Inspection Wing of q Local Government Division for' qualitative and quantitative : monitoring, analysis of' information, policy implementation, 11 evaluation and revision shall be increased. "
8.3 .16.. NGOs will play appropriate role in undertaking motivational  activities.
8.4 Urban Sanitation
8.4.1. The sanitation system shall have to be self-sufficient and self- sustaining. Sanitary latrine in every household will be promoted. Along with individual sanitation, public and community latrines will be set-up by City Corporation/Pourasabha and leased out to private sector for maintenance.
8.4.2. The City Corporations or Paurasabhas shall be responsible for solid waste collection, disposal and their management. These organizations
may transfer, where feasible, the responsibility of collection, removal ! and management of solid waste to the private sector. Where W ASAs  exists, they shall be responsible for sewerage and storm water drainage systems.
8.4.3. The City Corporations and Paurasabhas shall be empowered to set  tariffs, by-laws, appointment of staffs, etc. according to their needs and " in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the government. !
8.4.4. The role of women in the process of planning, decision making and ' Management shall be promoted through their increased representation  in management committees boards (Paurasabha/W ASA).
8.4.5. Drainage system in the cities and municipalities will be integrated with the overall drainage system with the coordination of Ministry of Water Resources.
8.4.6. Private sector and NGO participation in sanitation will be encouraged.
8.4.7. Behavioral development and changes in user communities shall be brought about through social mobilization and hygiene education in alliance with the Ministries of Health, Education, Social Welfare, Information, Women & Children Affairs, DPHE, NGOs, CBOs, local government bodies and other related agencies.
8.4.8. In consultation with relevant government and non-government organizations DPHE, W ASA and BUET will formulate an appropriate training program and impart the same in a decentralized manner.
8.4.9. Department of Environment will be consulted on solid waste management.
8.4.10. Measures will be taken to recycle, as much as possible, waste materials and to prevent contamination of ground water by sewerage and drainage. Institutional arrangement As regards water supply and sanitation sub-sector the Local Government Division will be responsible for overall planning, identification of investment projects and coordination of activities of agencies under it (viz. DPHE, LGED, WASAs) and local government bodies, private sector, NGOs and CBOs (community Based Organizations). But each of the relevant organizations/institutions will be responsible for its own activities. To coordinate, monitor and evaluate the activities of the sector and to determine future work programme Local Government Division will constitute a forum with representatives from relevant organizations. Except Dhaka and Chittagong city areas DPHE will be responsible for the water supply and sanitation of the whole country. In other urban areas the Department of Public Health Engineering will solely or jointly with the Paurasabha be responsible for such services. In urban areas DPHE will be responsible for assisting the Paurasabhas and City Corporations (except in the cities of Dhaka and Chittagong) through infrastructures development and technical assistance as may be necessary. Besides, both in rural and urban areas, DPHE will increasingly collaborate with private sector, NGOs and CBOs. In particular foreign aided projects where it is specifically required as a component of overall infrastructure package, LGED may undertake water supply and sanitation related activities. In such project-based cases LGED shall assist the concerned Paurasabha in the implementation and provide technical assistance.
Relevant WASAs will be responsible for water supply and sanitation in Dhaka and Chittagong city areas. Involvement of the private sector in these activities will be explored and examined.

Local Government bodies like Zilla Parisahad, Upazila Parishad, Union Parishad and Gram Parishad will be gradually provided with more scope to contribute in the activities of this sub sector.
Congenial atmosphere will be created and necessary support provided to facilitate increased participation of the private sector, NGOs and CBOs in the activities of the sector both in rural and, urban areas.
Private sector and NGO investment will be encouraged in manufacturing, sale and distribution of different types of tube wells, sanitary latrines etc. They will also be encouraged to participate in the installation of piped water supply system where feasible.
All relevant organizations will give emphasis on the reduction of 1 dependence on ground water and increased use of surface water. They will ~ ensure storage, management and use of surface water.
Policy implementation
 Drinking water supply and sanitation is a sub sector within the broader sector of health, environment and water and as such the National Policy in this sub sector shall be made consistent with the national policy for health, environment and water.
Future investment projects in the public sector shall be made within the framework of this policy as far as practicable. Endeavors will be made to coordinate the activities of private sector and NGOs through the Policy. Projects or activities undertaken at the level of the individual, community or organization will be coordinated by the Local Government Division within the framework of the Policy.

Strategies will be fon11ulated in the light of the Policy at various levels in consultation with the Ministry of Planning. W ARPO under Ministry of Water Research will also have a role in fon11ulating and implementing strategy. A comprehensive strategic plan of operations shall be prepared and investment projects identified. The process shall be participatory and may involve dialogue with all stakeholders including development partners. To enhance available knowledge and to fill infon11ation gaps focused studies shall be undertaken with a view to improving decision making. The policy planning, coordination and monitoring of the sector activities will be the responsibility of Local Government Division. The Local Government Division will have interaction with the Physical Infrastructures Division of the Planning Commission for the purpose of:
Reviewing on-going activities;
Planning programmes in the water supply and sanitation sector for the on- going Five Year Plan (1997-2002) and the, next Five Year Plan period;
Fon11ulating guideline for allocation of specific activities for the implementing agencies within the public and private sector (City Corporations, Paurasabhas, DPHE, WASAs, LGED, NGOs, etc.) with cost estimation.
Specific activities like monitoring progress of on-going activities, strategic planning and program fon11ulation, etc. and their allocation among different agencies (public sector, private sector, NGOs, CBOs, etc.) will be as initially discussed in paragraph 9 above.
The Local Government Division will liaise and negotiate with donors (bilateral, multilateral, etc.) through ERD for commitment of resources for the Sectoral Program. Local government institutions arid private organizations will also mobilize resources at the local level through motivational activities. The Local Government Division will prepare Half Yearly Report on the activities of the sector and submit to the concerned authorities.


THE MUNICIPALITIES IN Bangladesh are age old local selfgovernment institutes rendering municipal services in water supply, sanitation and health, waste disposal etc. Ever increasing migration of rural population to urban areas coupled with inadequate resources in men and material have rendered them inefficient. Conventional arrangements for rendering municipal services specially waste management are not enough and there is urgent need for alternative strategies to cope with the situation. In the country, there is approximately 25 million urban population generating about 7500 tons of garbage daily and is supposed to disposed off at the municipal disposal sites. But, it is estimated that 80 per cent of it is left on the streets or finds its way into drains and water courses or is dumped into low lying areas and vacant land. Most people in municipalities are condemned to live in a polluted and stinky environmental mess. Traditionally, solid waste collection and disposal have been a municipal responsibility. To improve the existing situation of the solid waste management together with other municipal services, Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) who provides technical assistance, especially for infrastructure development activities to local government Institutes (namely Union (sub-county), Thana (county), Zilla (district) councils, City Corporations and Municipalities) has taken up a number of urban development projects. LGED is currently responsible for implementation of a score of development projects throughout the country covering, besides the important areas of physical interventions, service oriented interventions in solid waste disposal, water supply, low cost sanitation, drains and drainage, socio-economic development of slum dwellers and other development activities. Out of 136 municipalities and 4 city corporations in Bangladesh, the total coverage under four urban development projects is 38 municipalities and 2 city corporations. The target population is more than 10 million and the duration of the projects are up to 2003. The Secondary Towns Infrastructure Development Project, one of such projects being implemented in 10 municipalities targets to develop an integrated urban infrastructure service programme for the provision and up gradation of essential infrastructure and service in the municipalities. The task is also to concurrently assist in strengthening their capabilities to plan, implement, operate and maintain these for a sustainable environment friendly municipal service system. Under the project, public- NGO partnership, a sustained municipal system has been introduced for solid waste collection and disposal and a case study has been prepared on this system.

Municipal service is essentially a people oriented function. Community participation is a necessity for a  ustained system. Non Government Organizations (NGO) have been doing a good job mustering the support and cooperation of the communities in their development efforts. They can rectify inefficiencies of systems and NGOs can help the public sector, reorganize substantial cost savings in the provision of public services to community while relieving financial and administrative burdens of the government. The NGO and the private  sector can also stimulate employment both through mutual involvement in urban development. The LGED, therefore, decided to undertake an experiment   NGO in Mymensingh and Sylhet municipalities to develop
and enforce a sustainable municipal service by restoring, developing, operating and maintaining the drainage network and the solid waste disposal (SWD) from the drains, roads and garbage bins (commonly called dustbins). The main objective is to foster an alliance among the three actors, the Municipality, the NGO and the  Community to provide sustained services. It was agreed that necessary manpower from existing staff i.e.  sweepers of the municipalities and materials would be used by an NGO on payment. In this way it was envisaged  that the existing resources could be used more effectively. The selected NGO is  ‘Shubashati’ which in English means good habitat. The organization has been working in the various field of urban and rural development for  more than a decade. It is one of the few agencies intimately working in infrastructure and service oriented projects like health and sanitation, solid waste disposal, slum improvement etc. Shubashati has been selected among other pre-qualified NGOs on the basis of NGOs’ experience, it’s organizational strength, financial resources and approach and methodology. Some of the objectives of the organization with regard to
these project are to improve solid waste management system, to minimize environmental pollution through efficient waste disposal techniques and to reduce cost of solid waste disposal work, generate employment for urban  people and create awareness among urban people about proper use of garbage bins. In each project municipality, there is a local office of Shubashati headed by a Programme Officer. The Programme Officer supervises the total work with the help of 2 supervisors who control the labours. Existing labourers of the municipalities are employed. ‘Shubashati’ staff shares the problems of labour and is also working for motivation of citizen for proper use of the facilities.

Economic support by non-government organization among study people:    
Basically slum dwellers are not rich. Often they are facing economic crisis. They can not fulfill their needs by their monthly income. They are always taking money as loan from their relatives and neighbor. In my study area an N.G.O is working for  people. There are so many restrictions to get credit from that N.G.O. The N.G.O is always reluctant to provide credit to slum people. As because social mobility of slum dwellers are faster than rural people. Also there is kinship relation among slum people like rural people. As a result N.G.O is facing little problem to find out exact needy people and facing problem to realize credit from them. Therefore, people are facing acute running small capital for their trade, business and diversified economic activities.
In my study area Association for social advancement (ASA) has continuing credit program only for some slum dwellers. ASA collect dwellers as a somitee (association) at the end of a week, members of this somitee (association) store ten taka to the ASA worker. ASA provide a note books to the member and ASA worker has a note book too. Both of them note their stored money. After six month later a member can collect loan minimum one thousand taka from ASA. Every week loan taker have to store his or her weekly amount as well as loans interest and after a certain period (this time duration will be selected by ASA) loan collector have to return that loan.

Health care
The slum dwellers are not getting proper modern treatment. Due to economic hardship most of them can not consult with the doctor. Many slum dwellers viewed that if they go to doctor for treatment, only doctor provides a prescription in lieu of a big amount of money. After that they can not follow the doctor’s instruction because of the scarce of money.
 In my study area I found  people go to the doctor rarely. At the eleventh hour they go to the public hospital and they also have to face some system loss and when disease become more effective then doctor also fail to give them proper treatment.
The birth and child rearing practices are very traditional. During pregnancy period, women follow their traditional health practices. There is no extra medical treatment and extra checkup system for pregnant women. Even they follow some traditional birth rules.
In my study area there is no government activities for pregnant women and children. I saw one non-government organization named UFHP’s “surjer hasi,” where some medical facilities are given only for women and children. Some women at their pregnant period went their and taken some health tips from them, though this clinic is situated for  but rich and middle class patients get priority there that claims my respondents.
In my study area I saw pregnant woman have no knowledge about taking proper food and nutrition. They follow common food. Actually they know about good food food like milk,,meat,fruits but they are unable to bear in this purpose. Due to this economic crisis they can not go to doctor for consultation. Also husband of the pregnant women is quite ignore about his wife’s health care. Maximum male overlook the matter of women’s health. At the emergency time only they take their wives to the nearest dispencery,if it does not works than they go to public hospital. During the pregnant period, pregnant women exchange her views with old senior neighbors.
 During birth period Dai (mid-wife) helps pregnant women. After birth of a baby Dai takes care by traditional way. If newly born child is male group, then call on male person for giving Azan (invitation by Islamic process) near the ear of a newly born baby. It is obvious that slum babies are depriving from modern rearing system. They take care their babies in a simple way.
After five or six years of a male child parent call an Azam (circumcise) for circumcising. The circumciser uses indigenous practices for cutting of the foreskin of a male child. This ceremony depends on peoples economic freeness. If a person think he has enough money to do this ceremony and his boy become big enough to do this thing than he call Azam. Because it is extra expenditure to them. They do not call doctor for circumcision because more money is needed for doctor and medicine purpose. 
In case of this  peoples illness, first they go to the nearest dispensary, where an L.M.A.F. doctor prescribe them for illness. Some people go to homeopathy doctor also. Besides this, for long time illness like jondis, typhoid, chest pain gastric tooth pain and headec ,thy choose folk healers, who suggest local medicine for them, folk hiller’s treatment is cheaper than doctor’s medicine and treatment.

In my study are forty-five percentage are illiterate and forty percentage people at least passed the primary education. Those who are illiterate, they at least the sense of basic calculating idea. In Badambagicha there is no government school but there are two non-government school which is financed by BRAC. These two school do not take any pay. Name of these school are BRAC School and Shishubondhu School,but student rate is low. BRAC school has thirty-three students and Shishubondhu school has twenty-six students. Though these two school is unpaid, colony dwellers do not send their children there. Because they mostly prefer to send their children for work or for their helping hand as well as there are some problem to get admission in those school. These two schools has been running for two years, two batch are studying tere,after completing five stage (means primary) the authority will take new batch. That’s why those who have missed to get admission in last year, they have no chances for next five year in those school. At least authority has no plan to take new batch.
Most of the migrant of this area is  and their condition is hand to mouth, they require more money for their livelihood. On the other hand most of the guardian have no education, so they can not realize their real future for their kids. It is obvious that most of the slum dwellers  have failed to send their children for education.
In my study area I found people getting emphasis on Arabic education. Maximum guardian think that if a boy or girl at least could Khotom (complete) the holly Quran, that would be enough.

Chapter eight:
we have no power to talk in front of the rich, like the chairman. We are afraid of them,. We are always looked down upon and scolded. So we never know what they are writing and doing” - A Landless Labor in Bangladesh (BRAC, 1949, P-20). This is the common scenery of  people in all of the area of Bangladesh. In the Badambagicha area none of migrated people were  in their previous home place. Various factors create them as . Some time they effected by natural disaster and sometime they effected by village politics. For this effected situation, they become  and they have to leave their home place. Most of the time they migrated to the city area. In the city area they have to face with some crucial factors too. Belonging in a particular group as  category, most of the time, they do not adapt in successfully with particular urban criteria. Within this situation, they have to face numeric problem including as serious health diseases.
Migrants in Urban Ecology
Badambagicha area is a newly form urban area in Sylhet City. Most of the city criteria have been found in this particular area. There has some residential area. Where most of the people carry upper level statuses and most of them come from different part of this country. Before settling here most of them are unknown with one another. But when they come into this area they have to interact with other people in terms of the fulfill of their life living practices. On the other hand Sylhet city have some particular criteria, which are not commonly found in other city of this country, such as local people always treat other people as outsider. Most of the time they does not consider them as a country man or as well as own people. For this when they interact with ‘other’ people, they always maintain their different statuses.
    In the Badambagicha area,  migrated people, here as a new corner, they does not know the particular city criteria, their assumptions are constructed by sharing other migrants’ experience. When they first come into this city, they have to face immediate two problems as manage their settlement area and manage a work for their earning. Different factors have been includes as causes of migration. In their previous home place they always victimize by richer class of their village (matbar). that situation they are not only sufferer  from economically but they suffer in different social or cultural perspectives. In the city area, they also deprive by other city people in new different shape. As  migrants in the city area they have five basic criteria such as powerlessness, isolation, poverty, physical weakness and vulnerability. Those criteria always deprive them and these are interrelated with each other. For this they can not overcome this situation. These interlinked deprivation trap would be focuses in following figure.
                                                  1. Power Less ness

2. Isolation                            5. Vulnerability

    3. Poverty                            4. Physical Weakness

Figure: The deprivation trap

In the Badambagicha area  migrated people always powerless, for their isolation, poverty physical weakness and vulnerability. They become powerless. Above figure shows that all of the attributes link with other attributes. Such as migrated  has a basic criteria as poverty. Poverty contributes to physical weakness through lack of food, small bodies, malnutrition, low sanitation and inability to reach or pay for health services; to isolation because of the inability to pay of the cost of schooling or to buy a radio; to vulnerability through lack of assets to pay large expenses or to meet contingencies; and to powerless because lack of wealth goes with low status: the  have no voice. (Champers, R.: 1985).
Within this situation,  people have been depriving all level of the position of urban society.

Urban Environment and Health Problem
As  people of newly setting urban area, they have to face some problems that are more crucial. In urban area, migrated people adapt with two particular environment such as natural environment and cultural environment. Within the natural environment Badambagicha area is a totally different from migrants’ previous home place. In the Badambagicha area, migrated people come from different past of Bangladesh. These different area has different pattern of natural environment such as their climate, geographical pattern, different pattern of rainy season, hot-cold differentiation etc. People live in their previous home place adapt with these different ecological criteria. And different part of Bangladesh has different pattern of cultural background such as different food habit, different occupation, different ritual management, different socio-cultural organization, different water collection pattern, different water using pattern, different latrine related behavior etc. Within these different background positions, migrated people adapt with another different urban environment. As for their particular  criteria, adaptation process is more difficult situation for them. In below figure represent this particular adaptation situation of migrants in Badambagicha area.
                                        Previous Natural and cultural    
                                   Environment (Migrants background)
                                                             2.  Migration                                                                                                       


     6. Migrants

Figure: Migrants adaptation Process in Urban area.

In above figure focuses the five dimension of  migrants’ adaptation process in a particular urban area. Such as,
1. Migrated people have particular socio-economical and cultural background, which are more interrelated with their specific natural environment of their home place.
2. Within those particular background, rural people migrated to urban area, where has two specific urban environments, which are natural and cultural environment.
3. Natural environment of urban area are interrelated with three specific feature such as its geographical feature, climate and productive nature.
4. Cultural environment of urban area has also some basic criteria, such as its social organization, occupation, food habit, sharing pattern, language and ritual pattern.
5. Both of natural and cultural environment create a total pattern of urban environment.
6. Within this urban environment,  people have to adapt with this situation. They have to share with both environment and successfully setting in this urban area.

Environment, disease and sanitation:
Environment implies all the external factors living and non-living material and non material which surround man. Major components of environment are :
Phycial: water, soil air, housing water, indicator
Biological –human beings, animal, plants, micro-organism

psychosocial- education, religion, cultural belief
to keep environment healthy it is necessarty to improve ‘environmental sanitation which is now being replaced by environmental health. Environmental health is defined by WHO as “the control of all those factors in man’s physical environment which exercise or may exercise a deleterious effect on hisl physical development health and survival.

Its purpose is to create and maintain ecological conditions that will promote health and thus prevent disease. Basic needs of envirionmental health are as follows:

provision of safe and adequate water supply
disposal of wastes (refuse and human excreta)”
provision of good housing
air hygienw
safe-gguardening of food
control of ** factors and other posets
control of animal reservoirs of infection
examination of hazards of noise radiation
control of occupation hazards
but this envirionmental health can be hampered by improper sanitation or improper disposal of refuse. A human excreta is a source of infection. It is an important cause of environmental pollution. Every society has a responsibility for its safe removal and disposal so that it dose not constitute a threat to public health. The halth hazards of improper sanitation are :

soil pollution
water pollution
contamination of foods
propagation of flies

The resulting disease are-
Bacterial            Viral            Protozoal        Helminthice
Cholera & diarrhea        Hepatitis         Amaebiasis        Hook worm
Bacillary dysentery        Poliomyelitis                    Round worm
Fever (Typhoid)   

To avoid this hazards the most effective step could be to segregate the faces by imposing a barrier which is called sanitation barrier:

Fig: Transmission of fecal born disease

Fig: sanitation barrier to transmission of fecal borne disease
It should fulfill the following criteria-
excreta should not contaminate the ground or surface water
excreta should not pollute the soil
excreta should not be accessible to flies, rodents, animals and other vehicles  of transmission
excreta should not create a nuisaace  due to odour or unsightly appearance.

Sanitation Related Diseases of  Migrated People

In the Badambagicha area, migrated people affected by different type of health problems, Most of the diseases of them are closely related with their low-level sanitation behavior specially in water related. In last one year,  migrants are effect by two major diseases, which are identify as water boon and water wash diseases such as water born disease4s is jaundice and water wash disease is diarrhea. In the Badambagicha area there are a single person found within every 12, who are affect by jaundice or diarrhea. In the dry seasons of this area, most of the people effected by both of this diseases. In the Badambagicha area, people are affected by other some diseases, including as cholera, dysentery, Pell attack etc. Those are also sanitation related discuses.

Slum dwellers of Badambagicha mostly found living in very low condition houses. Those houses are made of muddy floor, which is soaked water. Also home premises of different slums are submersed by rainwater. There is no big open space in this area. There is no good sewerage system. As a result all the year they face unhygienic colony environment. All the slum dwellers are living in a particular concentrated narrow environment. They are living in a congested room. More than five to six persons are living in a small shed. As a result transmitted disease like scabis,ring guard,chuli(solom),eczema etc are common. Specifically children carry skin disease very much, because they play in dirty place and move in dirt and one child’s easily transmitted to others easily by this playing purpose. Maximum children stays unclear as their parents remain busy at daytime, because dawn to dusk they have to busy to maintain their livelihood.

Health consciousness
Badambagicha, Within this backward area they are living with their family members. They are not following proper health care. They are not conscious about there individual as well as community health practice. Even most of them are not using soap after toilet clearance.
In addition, they are not getting nutritious food. Actually maximum of them do not have any idea about balance diet and nutrition. Many of them are not getting proper food in their daily life. Maximum dwellers of these colonies are low income based. Within their low income they could only provide normal foods, if their income stops, food quality become lower.

In case of illness the dweller of these colonies straight go to the nearest dispensary where an L.M.A.F doctor sits. This doctor has no visit. In the Badambagicha area, most of the people get treatment for these diseases from folk healer. Badambagicha area has a folk healer, who provides pani para for various diseases. Some time in crucial moment, they go to the Ousmani Medical Collage hospital their better treatment.

In other words slums people have individual health negligence, ignorance, illiteracy are the major causes of unhygienic and unhealthy situation of different slums. It obvious that there is existing unhealthy situation in different situation in different slums. This unhealthy situation has created by the slum dwellers. In fact institutional is very less for their development. In my study are there is no government or non- government activities or steps for their health and hygiene.
In this marshland mosquito and flies is residing. The rainwater soaks sometime different dusts. As a result bad smell spread out in the locality. As a result from this unhygienic environment dwellers suffer from diarrhea, fever, cough, gastric, decyntry,jondis and various types of skin disease.

Consequence of Unsuccessful Adaptation:

Most of the migrated people of Badambagicha area have not successfully adapted in a newly setting urban area. At first, they have to face numeric pattern of cultural and natural environmental factors. Geographically, Sylhet city is not same as other area of Bangladesh and its natural climate and productive criteria are more different from other part of this country. In the winter season, cold is more painful at night and in rainy season rain will come without any specific weather attitude. Land pattern of surrounding part of the Sylhet district have not so productive character. Majority needed goods (such as rice, vegetable) are come from different districts of this country. Culturally, Sylhet region is more different then other part of Bangladesh. Most of the local people talk with other people with using shylheti language. Newcomers in this city area have faced more problems to understand this language at first time. There cultural behavior is more different then other area. Such as migrated people fully depend on outsider shop or market for their daily food preparing. However, In the Sylhet city most of the local shops open after 9.00 or 9.30 pm. For this reasons, most of the  migrants fail to adapt in successfully with in city area. As a result, they have to suffer in some health problem.
On the other hand, as a  migrants, they do not arranged their settlement in a well planed place, their housing condition, surrounding area of their houses, their water supply situation are not well as upper level people in urban area. For this  supporting of life-living entities of migrant people, most of the time they becoming ill and attract by different diseases, such as diarrhea, cholera, jaundice, dysentery, spell attack and other diseases. Most of these diseases are strongly related with their  sanitation behavior. In below, discuss the different epidemical causes of diarrhea of  migrated people in Badambagicha area.
Diarrhea is a sanitation related discuses, water and sanitation behavior pattern of Badambagicha area already discuss in previous two chapters. However, in specifically diarrhea has some epidemiological factors in this area. Such as:
1) Occupation: Occupation is more relate to spread diarrhea in this area. Most to the  migrants are engaged in the low level working condition. Such as day laborer, rickshaw puller, maidservant etc. For those working status they work in different places and in their work time, they take meal and minimize their thirst from various places. Most of the time they take their meal and drink desire water from low sanitary tea-stale in near about road side.

2) Income: As  people, their income is so . By this  income they cannot buy fresh vegetable, fresh fish or any other fresh goods for their daily food supplies. Most of the time they buy late vegetable or fish, after long time stay in the market those goods price is more cheaply than early market time.

3) Limited tube well: In the three local migrated area, there are only 14 tube well and share its by 355 population. This information focuses that the actual scenery tube well water acquired by migrated people. For this situation most of the migrated people used ponds or other sources of water from different place of that area.

4) Limited Latrine: In the Badambagicha area there are about 70% people have no proper sanitary latrine. Most of them used low level sanitary latrine or unhealthy latrine. Which are more effected to spread diarrhea. On the other hand, about 90% of migrated people share a single latrine by 10 or more then 10 household. This situation also more effect to spread diarrhea germs.

5) Latrine Related Behavior: In the Badambagicha area people use latrine in unhealthy situations. Most of the time they go to the latrine in bear foot. Only 12.5% of people used soap after using latrine, remaining 87.5% of migrated people do not used soap after using their latrine in regularly. That type latrine related attitude more harmful for diarrhea.

6) Winter and Summer Period: In the winter and summer season water layer of tube well has been more downward, then shallow hand pump tube well can not pumping for tube well water. At that situation, people used ponds water for their every water desire. On the other hand, this time water quality of ponds is very miserable and drinking this water is more harmful for health.

7) Personal Hygiene: In the Badambagicha area most of the migrated people do not cut their nail in regularly, they do not regular wash their daily using cloth and they not regular follow the particular health hygiene. For this type personal hygiene they always attack by various diseases as like diarrhea.
In above factors are closely related with the main causes of diarrhea. In the Badambagicha area, those factors of  migrants’ behaviors are mostly spread diarrhea germs in this area. All of those factors are as ‘risk factors’ for diarrhea in terms of its epidemiological context and at that stage, it is also analytically proved.  

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